Vol. 17, No. 4 November 2000



The NASA History Program lost two good friends in late November 2000. NASA Scientist Dr. Gerald Soffen, who led the Viking science team that performed the first experiments on the surface of the planet Mars and a guiding force in NASA's effort to search for life in the Universe, died on 22 November 2000 in Washington, DC. He was 74. Soffen helped to shape NASA's Astrobiology program. Soffen also was instrumental in the establishment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, a virtual organization comprising NASA Centers, universities and research organizations dedicated to studying the origin, evolution, distribution and destiny of life in the universe. "Dr. Soffen brought a vision and passion to space exploration that was remarkable," said Goldin. "His pioneering work on the Viking Missions paved the way for the creation of our astrobiology effort. Gerry's lasting legacy to us is he helped usher in a new era of discovery that will bring a new understanding of fundamental life processes on Earth and throughout our Universe." He also materially aided in the preparation of several NASA histories, including On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet, 1958-1978 (NASA SP-4212, 1984), by Edward C. Ezell and Linda Neumann Ezell, and Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974. (NASA SP-2000-4408, 2000), by Asif A. Siddiqi.

We also lost Brian Welch, NASA Director of Media Services, on 24 November 2000. "His passing is a tremendous loss for all of us," said Peggy Wilhide, Associate Administrator for the Office of NASA Public Affairs. "Our thoughts and prayers go out to Brian's family, his many friends, as well as the many members of his extended family here at NASA." As director of Media Services, Welch led many of the agency's public outreach efforts. He was responsible for overall agency news operations, NASA Television and the agency's Internet efforts. "All of us at NASA are stunned and saddened by this tragic loss," said NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. "Brian's love and enthusiasm for space flight and exploration infectious. He approached his job with a passion and a purpose and truly embodied the spirit of this agency." He was a fine man and superb colleague, and a true friend of historical exploration.


We are pleased to announce that Andrew J. Dunar and Stephen P. Waring, Power to Explore: A History of the Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA SP-4313, 1999), has been awarded the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 2001 History Book Award. This award will be presented in Reno, Nevada, during January 2001. Our congratulations to the authors for this well-deserved award.

This work analyzes thirty years of history at Marshall from its origins as an Army center where Wernher von Braun presided over the development of the Redstone IRBM through the Saturn rocket development era to its present multifaceted role as the center for excellence in space transportation systems and microgravity research. It traces the evolution of the institution from its origins as an Army missile development organization to its status in 1990 as one of the most diversified of NASA's field Centers.

Among the many insightful sections of this book, the two chapters on the Challenger accident-one on the accident and investigation and another on the recovery-are among the best ever to appear. They discuss at length the evidence to conclude that the Challenger accident had more to do with NASA's organizational patterns and technological decisions that made sense at the time they were enacted—mostly in the austere period of the early 1970s—but that in retrospect turned out to be faulty.

They also show that engineers involved in the O-ring question were convinced that the joints were safe, and that there were numerous other problems-especially with the Shuttle main engines-that consumed most of the MSFC propulsion team's attention. Most importantly, there had been little engineering data at the time of the accident to support a correlation between O-ring anomalies and low temperatures. The fact that the seals had always done their jobs before contributed to a sense that they would not cause a major accident.

This book is for sale for $49.00 (domestic postpaid or $65.25 abroad), from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By mail: U.S. Government Printing Office, Documents Warehouse, 8610 Cherry Lane, Laurel, MD 20707. By phone: (202) 512-1707 ext: 30273. By fax: (202) 512-1657. Order stock number 033-000-01221-7. This book also may be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000. Order NASA SP-4313.


The Program Committee of the Society for History in the Federal Government has issued a call for papers for its annual meeting, scheduled to take place at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., on Thursday, 15 March 2000. The NASA History Office is planning to propose a session with the title, "Writing the History of the Soviet Space Program: The Federal Government and the Documentation of a Cold War Effort." Anyone interested in delivering a paper relating to this subject is invited to contact Dr. Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, at Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, 202-358-0383, roger.launius@ q.nasa.gov. The deadline for preparing this proposal is 15 December 2000.


The History Technical Committee of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is planning several sessions on air and space history for AIAA conference in 2001. Among them are the following conferences:

Anyone wishing to deliver historical papers at any of these conferences should contact Tony Springer, AIAA History Technical Committee Chair, e-mail tony.springer@hq.nasa.gov.


The NASA History Office co-sponsored a very successful two-part session on the history of human spaceflight on Thursday, November 16, 2000, at the Johnson Space Center. This office co-sponsored this activity with the Johnson Space Center (JSC) History Office and the History Committee of the American Astronautical Society (AAS). It coincided with the national meeting of the American Astronautical Society in Houston, Texas, November 14-16, 2000. About 50 people attended this session, and the feedback was excellent.

In the first part of the session, Glen E. Swanson of JSC assembled a session on the history of the Mission Control Center (MCC). The MCC history panel consisted of key individuals that both actively worked in the MCC and played key roles in its development. The lineup of panelists included Robert Legler, long-time contractor who played a pivotal role in early MCC development; Glynn Lunney, flight director for many of the Gemini and Apollo missions and later chief of the Flight Director's Office; and Milt Heflin, flight director for many of the shuttle missions.

In the second part of the session, we held an informal roundtable on the history of human spaceflight. It allowed the people working on various projects to present to others what they are working on and to hear any comments others might have to offer. In that respect the workshop served as a data exchange for people working in the area. Several individuals reported on their projects. These included the following book projects:

We closed the day with a reception honoring the publication of Asif Siddiqi's pathbreaking book, Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Race to the Moon, 1945-1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408).

Additionally, during the morning of 16 November 2000, the AAS History Committee held its own committee meeting. Glen E. Swanson at JSC assembled a session on the history of the Mission Control Center (MCC) and brought together 3-4 speakers for this session. In addition, we held the roundtable, allowing time for numerous historians to discuss their projects and to obtain feedback from the participants.


We are very pleased to note the overwhelmingly warm reception for Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Race to the Moon, 1945-1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408), a seminal book appearing in the NASA History Series by Asif A. Siddiqi. A result of 16 years of intense research, Challenge to Apollo was described by Glen E. Swanson (NASA JSC Historian) as "The definitive Western record of the Soviet space program." Siddiqi’s masterpiece has received rave reviews, praised as "Absolutely mandatory on the bookshelf of anyone interested in space, no matter what the cost" (Mark Wade, Encyclopedia Astronautica), "A major, major addition to our understanding of the former USSR" (Steven Zaloga, Target America: The Soviet Union and the Strategic Arms Race, 1945-1964) and "A must read for all history buffs" (James E. Oberg, Red Star in Orbit).

This book is available for public sale from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. How to order: For sale for $79.00 (domestic postpaid), $98.75 (non-U.S.). By Mail: Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. FAX: (202) 512-2250. Phone: (202) 512-1800 (7:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Eastern time). This book may be ordered on-line at http://bookstore.gpo.gov/index.html on the Web. Order stock number 033-000-01231-4. This book may also be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000.


The Infinite Journey: Eyewitness Accounts of NASA and the Age of Space, published by Discovery Books/Random House and prepared in direct cooperation with the space agency, is an engaging overview of the U.S. space program and the people who took part in it. Noted space-historian and Pulitzer Prize-nominee William E. Burrows offers readers a unique compendium of the agency’s most significant stories, told firsthand by astronauts, scientists, engineers, and other eyewitnesses. The volume contains contributions by NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin, Ray Bradbury, Sir Arthur C. Clarke, the late Carl Sagan and Homer Hickam Jr. As Goldin remarks in the jacket notes, "Our nation's space program is strong, it is relevant and it is vital to every American....Our mission, to explore the frontiers of space...and to enrich life here on Earth...is simply too exciting, too inspiring, too important to do anything else." Featuring 185 spectacular photographs from NASA archives that evocatively capture the spirit of space exploration enthusiasm, The Infinite Journey is a must-have book for anyone with an interest in the heroic drama of space exploration. The list price for this book is $40.00 and it is presently available through numerous bookstores and on-line at Amazon.com and Barnesandnoble.com.

Now also available from the NASA History Office is Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s (Monographs in Aerospace History #19, NASA SP-2000-4519, 2000), written by Joseph R. Chambers. This monograph describes the close working relationship between the aerospace research undertaken at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the development of military aircraft for the Department of Defense.

Also available now is Black Magic and Gremlins: Analog Flight Simulations at NASA’s Flight Research Center (Monographs in Aerospace History #20, NASA SP-2000-4520, 2000), a monograph by Gene L. Waltman. This monograph covers the use of analog and hybrid (analog and digital) flight simulations done at NASA’s Flight Research Center and its predecessor organization under the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) from 1955 to 1975. Among the projects covered in the monograph are the simulations for the X-15 rocket-powered aircraft, the lifting bodies, and the General Purpose Airborne Simulator. The monograph is rich in personal anecdotes and includes personal accounts by many people involved in the early simulations.

Both Partners in Freedom and Black Magic and Gremlins are available free of charge. We ask only that interested readers send a self-addressed 9x12" envelope with appropriate postage for 15 ounces (typically $3.20 within the U.S., $4.10 for Canada, and $7.20 for overseas—international customers are asked to purchase U.S. postage through an outlet such as http://www.stampsonline.com) to the NASA History Office, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.


Early in 2001, the NASA History Office will release Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference for the Human Phase of Project Apollo (NASA SP-2001-4029, 2001), a unique collection of valuable statistical information about Project Apollo. Richard Orloff compiled these statistics and also wrote narrative chapters on the various Apollo missions.

This winter we also plan to release a two-CD set containing pdf versions of all the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo air-to-ground transcripts. Titled, Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Mission Transcripts: The Complete Air-to-Ground Transmissions (NASA SP-2001-4601, 2001), this CD/ROM will capture in pdf format all of the voice transmission recordings between Mission Control and the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo missions in space. Special thanks to Glen E. Swanson, at the Johnson Space Center, for collecting all these transcripts, scanning them electronically, and organizing them. Thanks also to a large team of volunteers who helped Glen check the electronic transcripts for missing pages and other errors.

Also appearing early in 2001 will be Humans to Mars: Fifty Years of Mission Planning, 1950-2000 (Monographs in Aerospace History #21, NASA SP-2001-4521), a monograph by David S.F. Portree that will provide an overview of the history of the various plans developed since the dawn of the Space Age for the human exploration of Mars. Each type of mission will be categorized, its originators noted, its main elements detailed, and its legacy traced in the development of subsequent mission elements. This work should be useful reading for those who want to understand the long history of planning for human expeditions to the red planet.

Also forthcoming is Uplink/Downlink: A History of the Deep Space Network (NASA SP-2001-4225, 2001), by Douglas J. Mudgway. This book will describe and analyze the complex history of the Deep Space Network (DSN) from its origins, as a result of the early years of the planetary science program in the late 1950s, through its current role in the present as the most capable communications system in the world. It will assess the role of this critical communications method for both providing control to planetary probes and a means of obtaining the scientific data collected. This project is complete and the manuscript is in production.

In early spring 2001, we anticipate publishing the fifth volume in a continuing series of key documents. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume V, Space Science, Part 1 (NASA SP-2000-4407, 2000), is being produced under the general editorship of John M. Logsdon. This volume will contain key documentary materials on the origins, evolution, and organization of the space science enterprise at NASA, the history of planetary exploration, and Earth science. A future volume will contain documentary materials on astronomy and astrophysics, microgravity and life sciences, solar science, and solar-terrestrial physics.


Now available online is NASA-SP-4001, Project Mercury Chronology, published in 1963. Covering 1944-1963, this chronology recalls and explores key aspects of the Project Mercury missions. Prepared by James M. Grimwood and scanned/ formatted for the Web by Malcolm Munro, Project Mercury Chronology can is now available online at http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4001/cover.htm.

Also new to our online material collection is Skylab: A Chronology by Roland W. Newkirk and Ivan D. Ertel with Courtney G. Brooks. This 1977 publication tracks the history and future of Skylab starting in 1923, when Hermann Oberth first proposed the idea of a manned space station. Skylab: A Chronology can be found on the Web at http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4011/cover.htm.

Touchdown: The Development of Propulsion Controlled Aircraft at NASA Dryden, number 16 of the Monographs in Aerospace History Series, is now on the Web. Tom Tucker’s monograph is a well-written narrative of the development of aeronautics and propulsion, following the experiences of several pilots and developers in the late 1980’s through the 1990’s. To read Touchdown online, please see http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/History/Publications/PCA/ on the Web.


The National Archives and Records Administration announces a new project in the Digital Classroom section of its website. "Frontiers in History: Ideas from the National Archives" presents descriptions of 44 collections of records that are available or student research and relate to the 2001 National History Day theme, Frontiers in History: People, Places, Ideas. The URL for this resource is http://www.nara.gov/education/historyday/frontier/2001.html. NARA’s online resource "Frontiers in History: Ideas from the National Archives" encourages students to investigate archival resources related to a wide range of subjects, including air and space, atomic energy, civil rights, the environment, and foreign affairs. "Frontiers in History: Ideas from the National Archives" is the latest in a series of online projects that the National Archives and Records Administration produces for teachers and students to encourage archival research.


The NASA History Office currently has an internship program for undergraduates. We are looking for interns for both the academic year and the summer. The internship is for approximately 20 hours per week and college sophomores and juniors are preferred. Interns have the opportunity to take on significant responsibilities in editing, researching, answering information requests, and preparing documents in HTML for the World Wide Web. See http://history.nasa.gov/interncall.htm for more information.


The Smithsonian Institution Press is expanding its publishing program in aviation, space, and military history. In addition, the SIP/National Air & Space Museum’s aviation history series has been expanded to include space history. Now called the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series, the inaugural book in the refocused series is Beyond the Moon: A Golden Age of Planetary Exploration, 1971-1978 by Robert S. Kraemer. SIP is seeking substantive, scholarly works and monographs, plus well-researched, well-written histories, biographies, and memoirs. Send complete or partial manuscripts, proposals, and queries to Mark Gatlin, Smithsonian Institution Press, 470 L’Enfant Plaza, Suite 7100, Washington, DC 20560-0950. Phone: (202) 287-3738 x360. Fax: 202-287-3184 e-mail: mgatlin@ sipress.si.edu.


The National Air and Space Museum provides three residential fellowships to support research in aerospace history: the Guggenheim Fellowship for predoctoral and recent postdoctoral scholars, the A. Verville Fellowship, open to academic and non-academic historians, and the Ramsey Fellowship in Naval Aviation History, which is similarly open. Stipends range from $20,000 to $45,000 a year, plus money for travel and miscellaneous expenses. The application deadline for the academic year 2001-2002 is 15 January 2001, and successful applicants will be notified in mid-April. More details can be found at http://www.nasm.edu/nasm/joinnasm/fellow/fellow.htm on the Web. Requests for fellowship application packages should be sent to: Ms. Collette Williams, Fellowship Coordinator, Rm. 3313, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0312; collette.williams@nasm.si.edu. Application packages are available at the above web address. Potential applicants are also encouraged to investigate the Smithsonian Institution’s Office of Fellowships and Grants program. Information can be found at: http://www.si.edu/research%2bstudy/ on the Web.


The Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio, seeks proposals for papers to be presented at a symposium, "Following the Footsteps of the Wright Brothers: Their Sites and Stories," scheduled for 28 September 2001. On 17 December 2003 the world will mark the one hundredth anniversary of powered flight. This achievement was truly one of the most defining moments of the twentieth century, both on a national and international scale. This symposium will bring together scholars, students of all ages, enthusiasts, historians and educators to discuss their research and share their insights into the lives and careers of Wilbur and Orville Wright and the invention of powered flight through their sites and stories. Paper proposals are sought focusing on sites critical to the accomplishments of Wilbur and Orville Wright. Examples include: Huffman Prairie Flying Field, Dayton, Ohio; Pau, France; Fort Myer, Virginia; and College Park, Maryland. Those interested in submitting a paper, panel, or media production should submit a one page proposal including the title of the paper, name, address, and institutional affiliation, if appropriate. Proposals should be sent to Dawne Dewey, Wright State University Libraries, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, Ohio, 45435, 937-775-2011, e-mail dawne.dewey@wright.edu. The deadline for proposals is 15 February 2001.

The Solar System Development Journal is a new electronic journal devoted to documenting the efforts of the private and public sectors to expand the human domain of activity to space, the Moon and asteroids, and the planets in the Solar System. Papers that are encouraged will couple cost and reliability to all technical discussions and proposals. The Journal will become an archival source of information and ideas for those who develop policy, for space entrepreneurs, and for practitioners. The premier issue is slated for January 2001. For additional information, please contact Managing Editor, Haym Benaroya, e-mail haymbenaroya@ resonance-pub.com.

The Smithsonian’s Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and the MIT Press have established an interdisciplinary book series on topics in the history of invention and innovation. Potential authors are invited to submit book proposals for the Series at any time. Books in the Lemelson Center Series on Invention will explore the work of inventors and the technologies they create in order to advance scholarship in history, engineering, science, and related fields. Attractively designed, well illustrated, and engaging, the Lemelson Center Series will appeal to a general adult audience, with some volumes targeted to specialist audiences. Authors in the Series will be recognized names in the study of history or contemporary fields of invention. Each will raise new questions about the practice of invention and stimulate cross-disciplinary dialogue. For further information, please contact Joyce Bedi (bedij@nmah.si.edu), Larry Cohen (lcohen@mit. edu), or Arthur Molella (molellaa@nmah.si.edu). Please visit the Center’s website at www.si.edu/ lemelson.

The Mephistos 2001 Program Committee is requesting abstracts for papers by 15 January, 2001 in anticipation for the upcoming Mephistos Graduate Student Conference for the History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science, 30 March-1 April 2001. The conference will be held at the University of Notre Dame. Travel grant information is available at http://www.nd.edu/~meph2001. Abstracts should be submitted to Mephistos 2001 Program Committee, History and Philosophy of Science, 346 O’Shaughnesy Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5634.

The Inaugural Symposium of the Commission on History of Meteorology, IUHPS, will be held on 8-14 July 2001, on "International Perspectives on the History of Meteorology: Science and Cultural Diversity." Papers are requested on international aspects of the history of meteorology, broadly construed to include scientific, environmental, social, political and cultural issues. Participants may also wish to attend the inauguration of the new Commission on the History of Meteorology and participate in its governance. If circumstances warrant, the Commission will pursue publication options for the conference papers. Deadline for early registration: 15 December 2000; Deadline for abstracts: 30 April 2001; Online: http://www.smhct.ord/default.htm. Please send your name, affiliation, paper title and brief abstract to Prof. James R. Fleming, President, Commission on History of Meteorology, STS Program, 5881 Mayflower Hill, Colby College, Waterville, ME 04901. E-Mail: jrflemin@colby.edu.

The Oral History Association announces a call for papers for its annual meeting held in St. Louis, Missouri on 16-21 October 2001. The theme is "Bearing Public Witness: Documenting Memories of Struggle and Resistance," and they welcome presentation proposals that consider the challenges of collecting and documenting memories and histories that reflect trauma, genocide, violence, or social/political disorder. Proposals should include five copies of the following: 1) For full sessions, submit an abstract of no more than two pages and one page vitae per participant and 2) For individual proposals, submit one-page abstract and one-page vitae of presenter. All should include name, mailing address, institutional affiliation, phone number and email address. Deadline is 15 December 2000. For more information, contact Leslie Brown, Washington University, (314) 935-7279; e-mail lbrownb@artsci. wustl.edu. Send proposals to: Oral History Association Program Committee, c/o Professor Leslie Brown, Program in African and Afro-American Studies, Washington University, One Brookings Dr., St. Louis, MO 63130-4899; fax (314) 935-5631.

The 116th annual meeting of the American Historical Association will be held in San Francisco, 3-6 January 2002. The Program Committee invites proposals from all members of the Association (academic and nonacademic), from affiliated societies, and from scholars in foreign countries and in related disciplines. In planning the program, the committee seeks presentations that address the entire community of

historians and provide opportunities to examine the larger concerns of the profession. Continuing the practice of previous years, the committee encourages the participation of established scholars and also requests, in particular, panels on time periods, regions, topics, and approaches that have been underrepresented in recent AHA meetings. Information on proposing may be obtained from the AHA office at 2002 Materials, AHA, 400 A St., SE, Washington, DC 20003-3889. (202) 544-2422, ext. 104. Fax (202) 544-8307. E-mail: aha@theaha.org. All materials may also be found on the AHA’s web site. Go to http://www.theaha.org and then click on "Annual Meeting."


On 4-7 January 2001, the American Historical Association will hold it annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. Contact the American Historical Association,400 A Street, SE, Washington, DC 20003-3889, 202-544-2422, e-mail aha@theaha. org.

On 8-11 January 2001, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will include presentations of historical papers at its 36th AOAA Aerospace Sciences meeting. The meeting commemorates the 75th anniversary of Robert Goddard’s first liquid-fueled rocket. Contact: Tony Springer, Chair, AIAA History Technical Committee, aspringe@mail.hq.nasa.gov or http:// www.aiaa.org on the Web.

On Saturday, 20 January 2001, the Southern California Colloquium in the History of Science, Medicine and Technology will be holding a meeting titled "On the Remarkable Productivity of Military Technology for Science". It will be held in Room 314, Royce Hall, UCLA. Speakers include Ken Alder (Department of History at Northwestern University), Judy L. Klein (Department of Economics at Mary Baldwin College) and M. Norton Wise (Department of History, UCLA). All papers will be pre-circulated and available online at http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/ history/jacob/colloquium. To reserve your seat, please email Margaret C. Jacob, moderator: mjacob@history.ucla.edu.

On 8-10 March 2001 the Center for the Study of Intelligence and the Woodrow Wilson School of International Studies will co-sponsor a conference on "Central Intelligence Analysis of the Soviet Union, 1947-1991," at Princeton University, Princeton University. Contact: Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, Washington DC 20505, 703-613-1780, Website: http://www.odci.gove/csi.

The American Association of Museums and the National Air and Space Museum are co-sponsoring the 14th annual seminar in "Mutual Concerns of Air and Space Museums" on 14-16 March, 2001. The will be held at the Wyndham City Center in NW Washington, DC. Special negotiated hotel rates are available until 16 February, 2001 by calling (202) 775-0800 or (800) 526-7495. Early registration (by 2 Feb, 2001) is $325, and standard registration (by 14 Feb, 2001) is $375. For additional information, please contact the AAM at (202) 289-9114, seminars@aam-us.org, or www.aam-us.org.

On 15 March 2001 the annual meeting of the Society for History in the Federal Government will be held at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. This year’s theme is "Clio’s Wardrobe: Federal History in Different Styles." Contact: Dr. Rebecca Cameron, (202) 404-2190, e-mail: becky.Cameron@ worldnet.att.net.

On 27-28 March 2001, the American Astronautical Society will host its 39th Annual Goddard Memorial Symposium at the Greenbelt Marriott Hotel in Greenbelt, Maryland. Contact: American Astronautical Society, 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield VA 22152-2354, (703) 866-0020, e-mail: info@astronautical.org, website: http://www.astronautical.org.

On 20-22 April 2001 the annual meeting of the Business History Conference will be held in Miami, Florida. This year’s theme is "Services and the Global Economy." Contact: Roger Horowitz, BHC Sec’y/Treasurer, P. O. Box 3630, Wilmington, DE 19807.

On 26-29 April 2001 the Organization of American Historians will hold its annual meeting at the Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles, California. Contact: Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington IN 47408-4199, 812-855-9851, e-mail: email: oah@oah.org.

The Southern California Colloquium in the History of Science, Medicine and Technology will also be hosting a conference on Saturday, 28 April 2001, entitled "Science, Technology and Economic Development: How Tight is the Fit?" It will be held in Room 314, Royce Hall, UCLA. Speakers for this meeting will include Joel Mokyr (Departments of Economics and History, Northwestern University), Alice H. Amsden (Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT), Naomi R. Lamoreaux and Kenneth Sokoloff (Departments of History and Economics, UCLA), David Reed (University of North Florida) and Margaret Jacob (UCLA). All papers will be pre-circulated and available online at http://www.sscnet. ucla.edu/history/jacob/colloquium. To reserve your seat, please e-mail Margaret C. Jacob, moderator: mjacob@history.ucla.edu.

On 23-26 May 2001 the Society for Military History will hold its annual conference in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Contact: Dr. John Ferris, SMH 2001 Committee, Dept. of History, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr., NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada, e-mail mackie@stratnet. ucalgary.ca.

The Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology announces its Seminar in the History of Biology to be held 30 May-6 June 2001 at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA. This year’s seminar will explore the history of developmental biology, from its inception as "embryology" to the most recent approaches known as molecular developmental genetics and "evo-devo." Organizers for the Dibner History of Biology Seminars are John Beatty, James Collins, and Jane Maienschein (contact maienschein@asu.edu). For further information about the seminar series and for application materials and financial aid applications (15 January deadline), please contact: Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Dibner Building, MIT-E56-100, Cambridge, MA 02139, or contact Carla Chrisfeld: carlac@mit.edu or (617) 253-8721.

On 14-16 June 2000 the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations will hold its 27th Annual Conference on the campus of the American University in Washington, D.C. Contact: Richard H. Immerman, Temple University, 9th Floor, Gladfelter Hall (025-24), 1115 W. Berks St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122-5891, (215) 204-7466.

The 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit will be held at the Salt Palace in Salt Lake City, Utah. Of note, this year’s schedule will include re-presentation of papers considered to be "classical" or especially important to the field of solid rocketry in the 20th Century; these papers may include updated information or commentary as appropriate. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (703) 264-7500, (800) NEW AIAA, Fax. 264-7551, Website: http://www.aiaa.org.

On 8-14 July 2001 the XXIst International Congress of the History of Science will be held in Mexico City, Mexico. Contact: Prof. Juan José Saldaña, Chairman of the Organizing Committee, XXIst Int’l Congress of the History of Science, Apartado Postal 21-873, México, D.F. 04000, México, e-mail: xxiichs@servidor.unam.mx.

The 12th Biennial International Conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology will be held at the University of Aberdeen in Aberdeen, Scotland. The theme will be "Nature and Technology." Contact: Andrew Light, SPT Conference, Int’l Center for Advanced Studies, New York University, 53 Washington Square South, Rm 401E, New York, NY 10012, e-mail: alight@ binghamton.edu.

On 12-13 July 2001 the Center for the History of Business, Technology & Society at the Hagley Museum, Wilmington, Delware, will host a conference entitled "Engineering Postwar Industry in the 1940s-1970s: The Relative Trajectories of Mass and Specialty Production in the U.S., U.K., and Japan." Contact: Philip Scranton, Director, CHBTS, Hagley Museum and Library, P.O. Box 3630, Wilmington, DE 19801.

In August 2001, there will be a symposium on History of Geomagnetics, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Physics and Related Disciplines in Hanoi, Vietnam. For further information contact Dr. Wilried Schroder, Hechelstrausse 8, D-28777, Bremen, Germany.

On 28-30 August 2001 the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Space Technology Alliance will co-sponsor the AIAA Space 2001 Conference and Exposition at the Albuquerque Convention Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (703) 264-7500, (800) NEW AIAA, website: http://www.aiaa.org.

On 4-7 October 2001 the 41st Annual Western History Association Conference will be held in San Diego, California. This year’s theme is "The American West as Living Space." Contact: Western History Association, 1080 Mesa Vista Hall, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1181, (505) 277-5234, e-mail wha@unm. edu.

On 4-7 October 2001 the Society for the History of Technology will hold its annual meeting at the Fairmont Hotel in San Jose, California. Contact: SHOT, Dept. of the History of Science, Medicine & Technology, 216B Ames Hall, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD 21218, 410-516-8349, http://shot. press.jhu.edu/associations/shot/.

On 16-21 October 2000 the Oral History Association will hold its annual meeting in St. Louis, Missouri. This year’s theme is "Bearing Public Witness: Documenting Memories of Struggle and Resistance." Contact: Leslie Brown, Washington University, 314-935-7279, e-mail: lbrownb@artsci. wustl.edu.

On 22-25 October 2001, The First Flight Centennial Commission is holding a conference commemorating the Wright Brothers entitled "They Taught the World to Fly: The Wright Bothers and the Age of Flight". Inquiries should be directed to Dr. Larry Tise at ltise@ibm.net or to (919) 733-2003 or (919) 715-8959.

On 8-11 November 2001 the History of Science Society will hold its annual meeting in Denver, Colorado. Contact: History of Science Society Executive Office, University of Washington, Box 351330, Seattle WA 98195-1330, 206-543-9366, e-mail: hssexec@u.washington.edu.

The American Astronautical Society will hold its National Conference and 48th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, California. Contact: The American Astronautical Society, 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield, VA 22152-2354, 703-866-0020, e-mail: info@astronautical.org.

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

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