Vol. 18, No. 1 February 2001



In conjunction with George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute, NASA is planning a one-day seminar on 8 May 2001 to mark the fortieth anniversary of the historic flights of Yuri Gagarin and Alan Shepard. The seminar will take place at George Washington University and be free to the public. Three main panels are slated: historical perspectives on the past 40 years of human spaceflight, astronaut perspectives on the experience of spaceflight, and perspectives on the next 40 years. Featured speakers include:

More details will be posted to the NASA history website soon. If you would like to receive information on the symposium please send a note with your contact information to histinfo@hq.nasa.gov and ask to be included on the mailing list.


Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space program, Volume IV: Accessing Space (NASA SP-4407, volume IV, 1999) received the Thomas Jefferson Prize for best documentary book from the Society for History in the Federal Government. The Society presents this award annually to the documentary work it deems "to be an outstanding contribution to furthering history of and in the Federal Government on the basis of significance of subject matter, depth of research, rigor of methodology, clarity of presentation, and quality of style." John M. Logsdon is the general series editor and Ray A. Williamson, Roger D. Launius, Russell J. Acker, Stephen J. Garber, and Jonathan L. Friedman also contributed to this volume.

This is the fourth volume in an ongoing series of reference books useful to those interested in both space history and space policy. The documents are grouped into four thematic chapters with an introductory essay for each subject. Chapter one is devoted to the Saturn V launch vehicle, chapter two covers the Space Shuttle, the third chapter details commercializing space transportation, and the fourth chapter explores future space transportation possibilities. Ray A. Williamson is the author of the introductory essays for the first two chapters. John M. Logsdon and Craig R. Reed wrote the introductory essay for the third chapter, and Ivan Bekey introduced the fourth chapter.

The work publishes 134 key documents on the history of launch vehicles. It emphasizes NASA’s development of the Saturn 5 Moon rocket, the Space Shuttle as a launch vehicle, the commercialization of space transportation, and the development of Shuttle follow-on launch systems such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) and the X-33. Each document is introduced by a headnote providing context, bibliographical information, and background information necessary to understand the document, and includes an Index and a Biographical Appendix.

This book is for sale, for $50.00 (domestic postpaid) and $62.50 (non-U.S.), from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By Mail: Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. FAX: (202) 512-2250. Phone: (202) 512-1800 (7:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Eastern time). Order stock number 033-000-01219-5. This book also may be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000. Order NASA SP-4407, Volume IV. You may also order this book on-line from the Government Printing Office: http://bookstore.gpo.gov/.


The History Technical Committee of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is planning several sessions on air and space history for AIAA conferences in 2001:

Anyone wishing to deliver historical papers at any of these conferences should contact Tony Springer, AIAA History Technical Committee Chair, e-mail tony.springer@hq.nasa.gov.


The NASA History Office is pleased to announce the publication of Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference for the Human Phase of Project Apollo (NASA SP-2000-4029, 2000), a unique collection of valuable statistical information about Project Apollo. Richard Orloff compiled these statistics and also wrote narrative chapters on the various Apollo missions.

This book is available for sale for $40.00 (domestic postpaid or $50.00 abroad), from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By phone: (202) 512-1707 ext:30273. By fax:(202) 512-1657. You may also order this book on-line from the Government Printing Office: http://bookstore.gpo.gov/ Order stock number 033-000-01236-5. This book also may be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000. Order NASA SP-2000-4029.

We are also pleased to announce the release of a two-CD set containing pdf versions of all the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo air-to-ground transcripts. Titled, Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Mission Transcripts: The Complete Air-to-Ground Transmissions (NASA SP-2001-4601, 2001), this CD-ROM set captures in pdf format all of the voice transmission recordings between Mission Control and the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo missions in space. Special thanks to Glen E. Swanson, at the Johnson Space Center, for collecting all these transcripts, scanning them electronically, and organizing them. Thanks also to a large team of volunteers who helped Glen check the electronic transcripts for missing pages and other errors, and to John Betts of the Headquarters Printing and Design Office, who laid out and arranged the CD files for production.

As long as supplies last, you may obtain one copy of the CD-ROM set (two CDs in a standard-size single jewel case) by sending a self-addressed envelope with appropriate postage for 6 ounces (typically $2.95 within the U.S., $4.05 for Canada, and $10.00 for overseas (international customers are asked to purchase U.S. postage through an outlet such as www.stampsonline.com) to the NASA History Office, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546. Please do not send cash or checks.

Flight Research: Problems Encountered and What They Should Teach Us (NASA SP-2001-4522) is Monograph in Aerospace History #22. Flight Research was written by Milton O. Thompson with a background section by J.D. Hunley. The text of this monograph originated as an untitled rough draft that Thompson wrote in approximately 1974 (before his death in 1993). Hunley has edited this insightful work and provided some explanatory background for readers who are not so familiar with what is now known as NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. Thompson was a flight engineer and a test pilot on programs such as the X-15 and the lifting bodies.

The NASA History Office also published Humans to Mars: Fifty Years of Mission Planning, 1950-2000 (Monographs in Aerospace History #21, NASA SP-2001-4521), a monograph by David S.F. Portree that provides an overview of the history of the various plans developed since the dawn of the Space Age for the human exploration of Mars. Each type of mission is categorized, its originators noted, its main elements detailed, and its legacy traced in the development of subsequent mission elements. This work should be useful reading for those who want to understand the long history of planning for human expeditions to the red planet.

To obtain a copy of any NASA history monograph, please send a self-addressed 9x12" envelope for each monograph with appropriate postage for 17 ounces (typically $3.95 within the U.S., $5.05 for Canada, and $11.00 for overseas (international customers are asked to purchase U.S. postage through an outlet such as www.stampsonline.com) to the NASA History Office, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.

Finally, we are pleased to announce that one of the most popular books in the NASA History Series, Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations (NASA SP-4204, 1978), by Charles D. Benson and William Barnaby Faherty, is being reissued in a two-volume paperback format by the University Press of Florida. The two volumes are Gateway to the Moon: Building the Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex and Moon Launch! A History of the Saturn-Apollo Launch Operations. Gateway to the Moon includes the first half of Moonport and presents the definitive history of the origins, design, and construction of the lunar launch facilities at Kennedy Space Center, the terrestrial site of one of the greatest national adventures of the 20th century, humanity’s first trips to the Moon. Moon Launch! is essentially the second half of Moonport dealing with the actual operational aspects of Apollo. The University Press of Florida’s on-line catalogue for Gateway to the Moon is located at http://www.upf.com/Spring2001/benson_ gateway.html and Moon Launch! is located at http://www.upf.com/Spring2001/benson_launch.html on the Web. Each book sells for $24.95.

Long out of print, Moonport is one of the most requested books in the NASA History Series and so we are especially delighted that it will soon be available in a paperback edition. Moonport is also available at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4204/ cover.html on the Web. Although this reprint of the book is now available, our on-line version of the original edition will remain accessible on the World Wide Web.


We anticipate the publication of Tom Tucker’s The Eclipse Project (NASA SP-2000-4523) in late spring 2001. This monograph describes the Eclipse project involving Kelly Space & Technology, Inc., NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, and the Air Force in flight testing a concept whereby a launch vehicle for a satellite could be towed to initial launch behind a transport airplane. Flight research with a C-141A as the tow aircraft and an F-106 as the simulated launch vehicle began in December 1997 and ended in February 1998. The flights demonstrated that the concept was viable.

Also forthcoming is Uplink/Downlink: A History of the Deep Space Network (NASA SP-2001-4225, 2001), by Douglas J. Mudgway. This book will describe and analyze the complex history of the Deep Space Network (DSN) from its origins, as a result of the early years of the planetary science program in the late 1950s, through its current role in the present as the most capable communications system in the world. It will assess the role of this critical communications method for both providing control to planetary probes and a means of obtaining the scientific data collected. This project is complete and the manuscript is in production.

In spring 2001, we anticipate publishing the fifth volume in a continuing series of key documents. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume V, Space Science, Part 1 (NASA SP-2001-4407, 2001), is being produced under the general editorship of John M. Logsdon. This volume will contain key documentary materials on the origins, evolution, and organization of the space science enterprise at NASA, the history of planetary exploration, and Earth science. A future volume will contain documentary materials on astronomy and astrophysics, microgravity and life sciences, solar science, and solar-terrestrial physics.

Finally, appearing in the "New Series in NASA History" will be Taking Science to the Moon: Lunar Experiments and the Apollo Program, by Donald A. Beattie (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, June 2001), Hardcover - 336 pages, ISBN: 0-8018-6599-9, Price $42.50. The advertising copy for this work states: "This is a well written, clearly argued book on a topic of very considerable interest to working earth and planetary scientists, historians of science, and spaceflight 'buffs,' as well as an informed public. The science performed during and in preparation for the Apollo missions has drawn relatively little attention given its scope, the number of people involved, and the importance of the results secured. Hence this work helps to fill a surprising gap in the literature, as well as adding a very interesting voice to the existing material on the workings of NASA in the 1960s and early 1970s."—Robert Smith, University of Alberta

"An excellent account of the workings at NASA Headquarters leading up to and during the Apollo era. The author, a geologist and former Navy jet pilot, spent a significant amount of his career assuring that good science be done on the Moon. Those of us who participated in that science owe much to Don."—Gordon A. Swann, Principal Investigator, Apollo Field Geology Experiment, Apollos 14 and 15

How did science get aboard the Apollo rockets, and what did scientists do with the space allotted to them? Taking Science to the Moon describes, from the perspective of NASA headquarters, the struggles that took place to include science payloads and lunar exploration as part of the Apollo program. Author Donald A. Beattie—who served at NASA from 1963 to 1973 in several management positions and finally as program manager, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments— supplies a detailed, insider's view of the events leading up to the acceptance of science activities on all the Apollo missions.

Beattie tells this story within the context of what we knew about the Moon in the 1960s, the ongoing programs that looked ahead to the first successful landing, and the objections that had to be overcome within NASA's entrenched engineering culture. Beattie concentrates on activities directly related to science, including behind-the-scenes controversies.

He also discusses the important contributions of some of the lesser-known participants and contractors, who played a much larger role than previous books on the program have acknowledged.

Taking Science to the Moon provides the early history of on-site lunar experiments, raising important questions about a shift in NASA policy which led to some of the most dramatic planetary-science developments of our time.


The NASA History Office published last fall Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408, 2000) by Asif A. Siddiqi. This thousand-page, hardcover book is a truly pathbreaking study. It is the first comprehensive history to appear on the Soviet human space flight program since the opening of the archives in the early 1990s. As a result, it benefits from exceptionally strong primary source materials, as well as perspective on an important challenge that helped to define the U.S. space effort until the 1980s. Going beyond the basic facts, however, Siddiqi has created a gripping narrative that weaves together several broad interpretive themes.

The 8 January 2001 issue of Aviation Week & Space Technology has a story entitled, "Policy and Technology Shape Manned Space Ops," focusing on forty years of human space flight, pp. 44-48. Challenge to Apollo, is explicitly used as a source in the story. There is also a special sidebar specifically for the book on p. 48.

Of course, this book is available for public sale from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. How to order: For sale for $79.00 (domestic postpaid), $98.75 (non-U.S.). By Mail: Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. FAX: (202) 512-2250. Phone: (202) 512-1800 (7:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Eastern time). This book may also be ordered at http://bookstore.gpo.gov/index. html on the Web. Order stock number 033-000-01231-4. This book may also be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000.


The Aeronautics and Space Report of the President, Fiscal Year 1999 Activities, is now on-line at http://history.nasa.gov/presrep99/home.html on the Web. Special thanks to Douglas Ortiz of the Headquarters Printing and Design Office for creating an attractive and functional Web version. Several previous versions are also available on-line from http://history.nasa.gov/presrep.htm on the Web.

The text of Atmosphere of Freedom: Sixty Years at NASA Ames Research Center (NASA SP-2000-4314) is now available on-line at http://history.arc.nasa.gov:80/@mosphere.html on the Web. Thanks to David Morse at Ames for making this center history available on-line.

The NASA History Office has revised and expanded our Space Policy Documents page at http://history.nasa.gov/spdocs.html on the Web. Organized chronologically by decade, this site now has links to many useful policy documents.

Information regarding the flight of Robert Goddard’s first liquid fueled rocket, which took place on 16 March 1926, is available at http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/75th/75th.htm on the Web. This site also includes historical information about NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.

The NASA History Office has added an on-line version of America at the Threshold: America’s Space Exploration Initiative, commonly known as the Stafford Report, May 1991, to our site at http://history.nasa.gov/staffordrep/main_toc.PDF on the Web. Thanks to Mike Walker of the NASA Headquarters Printing and Design Office for creating this attractive set of full-color pdf files.

Because of the 15th anniversary of the Challenger accident, STS-51L, on 28 January 2001 the NASA History Office updated its World Wide Web site on this tragic event. The address is http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/sts51l.html on the Web.

Links on this page include a series of significant NASA sites containing information about the mission and the accident. These include the following:

  1. STS-51L Challenger Mission Profile.
  2. Sequence of Major Events of the Challenger Accident.
  3. Image library of the STS-51L Challenger mission at Johnson Space Center.
  4. Movie clips of the STS-51L Challenger mission, from the Kennedy Space Center.
  5. Press Kit: this pre-launch document has been scanned in regular and high-resolution formats by volunteer Rich Orloff.
  6. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, chaired by William P. Rogers.
  7. NASA's Actions to Implement the Rogers Commission Recommendations.
  8. A description of modifications to the Solid Rocket Boosters from the On-line Space Shuttle Reference Manual.
  9. A Challenger Bibliography: This is chapter 7 of the Space Shuttle bibliography published in 1992.
  10. The fate of Challenger's crew: Dr. Joseph P. Kerwin's investigation tried to determine the cause of the crew's deaths. His report and the accompanying press release are available.
  11. The transcript from the mission's voice recorder, which operated from T-2:05 until the accident.
  12. Biographical Information on the Challenger Crew.
  13. NASA Spacelink Information on the Challenger Accident.
  14. NASA Shuttle Web site on STS-51L.
  15. NASA Administrator's Statement, on the Tenth Anniversary of the Challenger Accident.

In addition, we have created links to numerous other sites on the web relating to the Challenger accident. Items in this listing include:

  1. Richard Feynman's Appendix to the Rogers Commission Report on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident
  2. President Reagan's Speech on the Challenger Disaster, January 28, 1986
  3. President Reagan's Eulogy: Remarks at a memorial service held in Houston following the Challenger disaster, January 31, 1986
  4. Life Magazine on Challenger
  5. Challenger Remembered: A brief montage of images and sounds from the Challenger accident, from the CNN video vault
  6. Houston Chronicle's Remembrance of the Challenger Disaster, January 28, 1986
  7. An Analysis of the Challenger Accident by Mark Haisler and Robert Throop, from the University of Texas at Austin mechanical engineering department
  8. The Challenger Disaster by Josh Madeira and Nick Rutherford and Robert Throop from the Bowdoin University physics department
  9. A case study in engineering ethics on the Challenger accident, from the departments of philosophy and mechanical engineering at Texas A&M University
  10. "The Challenger Shuttle Disaster: A Failure in Decision Support System and Human Factors Management"
  11. "A Disaster in Engineering: The Challenger Shuttle Disaster"
  12. Roger Boisjoly on the Challenger Disaster
  13. Davinder Mahal's Challenger page
  14. Challenger Learning Center Homepage

We hope this material will be useful in reflecting on and analyzing this significant event in the history of space flight. The Challenger accident remains the most tragic episode in the evolution of NASA and it is important to understand how and why it took place. These materials may help in this process of understanding.


We are working on a new Web site to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the STS-1 mission, which was launched on 12 April 1981. This site will pull together a variety of new, useful information about the history of the Space Shuttle. Stay tuned for details.

Chris Gamble, one of our top Web volunteers, is currently working hard to make available on-line the complete text and images from the multi-volume "Rogers Commission Report" regarding the Challenger accident. A big tip of the hat to Chris for taking on this mammoth task.

The NASA History Office has been working to create an on-line database of still images of great images in NASA history. Somewhat similar to the existing NIX database, this Headquarters database will include some of the best images available relating to the origins and development of NASA and its predecessor agency, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The images will be searchable in a variety of ways and they will be available in several resolutions. Our intent is to make these available in a high-resolution format suitable for downloading and use in print publications. We are beginning the effort with 1,000 images, with additional one to be added in the future. We will unveil this free database publicly in May 2001.


The John H. Glenn Research Center is planning special exhibits to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Center’s ground breaking. Each month beginning in April 2001 a different decade will be highlighted in the Main Cafeteria with pictures, videos, and documentation from that era. The Glenn Research Center History Office will also be posting a weekly bulletin entitled "This Week in History" that will include a scanned image of the Center’s newspaper from that week beginning with the first issue in 1942 and any other links to historical events from that time period. Plans are underway to have the entire historical collection of Center newspapers available in a searchable format.

The GRC Records and History Offices are also beginning to work with the National Archives and Records Administration and the NASA Headquarters History Office on plans to preserve the records and history of two significant GRC facilities that are to be removed from service. The Rocket Engine Test Facility (RETF) will be removed in order to allow Cleveland Hopkins Airport to expand their runways. The RETF is listed as a Historical Landmark. This facility, built in 1957, played a significant role in the development of liquid hydrogen as a rocket fuel. It was used in the development of the RL 10 engine used for the Centaur rocket, the J-2 engine used in the second stage of the Saturn V rocket and the hydrogen-oxygen engines used by the Space Shuttle. The RETF was last used in the mid 1990s.

The other facility that will be removed is the Plum Brook Nuclear Reactor Facility (PBRF). Situated at Plum Brook Station, approximately 60 miles from Cleveland, this unique facility was taken out of active service in the early 70’s and has been in a standby/safe mode since that time. This facility was used to determine the feasibility of nuclear-powered aircraft and rockets. The decommissioning and dismantling project is a joint venture with the Army Corps of Engineers, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency along with local and state agencies. It is expected to take seven years to complete the removal.

Information about the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility is available at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/pbrf/ on the Web. Thanks to Kevin Coleman of Glenn Research Center for supplying this information.


Take the "Wright Brothers Trivia Challenge" at http://www.firstflightcentennial.org/quizzes/index.htm on the Web. The Challenge changes monthly, and a First Flight Centennial T-shirt will be awarded to one winner each month. The Challenge was developed with the assistance of Dr. Tom Crouch, senior curator for aviation at the National Air and Space Museum and Mr. Darrell Collins, historian at the Wright Brothers National Memorial. The First Flight Centennial organization is in North Carolina.


The University of Houston-Clear Lake will receive and maintain Johnson Space Center’s historical records under a memorandum of understanding signed on 8 February 2001. The agreement is part of the continuing effort by NASA and Johnson Space Center to share historic information with the public.

Johnson Space Center’s history collection includes copies of correspondence, memos, reports, interviews and other materials documenting the history and role played by the center in NASA's human space flight program.

The first series of documents to be moved are records of the Apollo Program, which had once been kept at the Woodson Research Center at Rice University's Fondren Library. More than 1,000 oral history interview tapes, transcripts and videos documenting the men and women that worked on the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs will be included in the initial move.

Records scheduled for later transfer include material on the space shuttle, space station and the general history of Johnson Space Center. Archives to house the records are under construction in the library, and should be completed later this year. The archives will be open to students, researchers and the public.

"Transfer of the center's history collection to UHCL will allow easier access to this material by scholars and the general public," says Johnson Space Center Historian Glen Swanson. "A great deal of unprocessed material in the center’s history collection needs attention," Swanson said. Those records transferred to UHCL will free up additional on-site space for processing this backlog of material, which can then be cataloged and indexed before joining the rest of the collection at the university.

The expanded UHCL archives will be staffed by a full-time archivist and other trained support personnel who will be able to assist researchers in using the collection. The UHCL archives will be a secure, environmentally controlled facility that meets National Archives and Records Administration standards.

Researchers will have access to an electronic index for the entire collection. Efforts are under way to digitize the collection, so the database can be linked to the documents, enabling researchers to electronically search the collection and retrieve digital scans of the documents through the Internet. Plans call for this database to be moved to a public Web site, providing users with remote access. Under the agreement, the transfer will be for an initial 10-year loan period, with options for possible extension.


The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has an opening for a professional historian. For details, go to http://cpol.army.mil/va/scripts/public.html on the Web and enter announcement number NCX19601CO. The vacancy announcement closes 5 April 2001.


In addition to its internship program, the NASA History Office is looking for permanent volunteers. We would like to find a suitable retiree to work approximately 20 hours per week in our office on an ongoing basis. This volunteer need not have specific experience working at NASA, but should exhibit strong interest in aerospace history and be willing to learn. Volunteers would have the opportunity to take on significant responsibilities in editing, researching, answering information requests, and preparing documents for the World Wide Web. For more information, please contact Steve Garber at 202-358-0385 or steve.garber@hq.nasa.gov.


The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has a new monthly lecture series called a Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion. The lectures are free, open to the public, and held at the AAAS building near Metro Center in Washington, D.C. Upcoming speakers will address such topics as robotics and artificial intelligence, biodiversity, and the Human Genome Project. For more information, please see http://www.aaas.org/spp/dser/ on the Web.


The U.S.S. Hornet Museum is moored at Pier 3 in Alameda, California. This aircraft carrier was one of the major ships used in recovery operations for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft after their voyages to the Moon. The Hornet Museum is working to educate the public on Apollo and the recovery operations, including "back contamination" issues. It has obtained, on loan from the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, one of the four original Mobile Quarantine Facilities (MQF) used by NASA after the Apollo 14 mission. Photos of the MQF being moved aboard the Hornet Museum are now available on-line at http://www.wbcci12.com/HornetMQFCapsule.htm on the Web.


The Smithsonian Institution Press is expanding its publishing program in aviation, space, and military history. In addition, the SIP/National Air & Space Museum’s aviation history series has been expanded to include space history. Now called the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series, the inaugural book in the refocused series is Beyond the Moon: A Golden Age of Planetary Exploration, 1971-1978 by Robert S. Kraemer. SIP is seeking substantive, scholarly works and monographs, plus well-researched, well-written histories, biographies, and memoirs. Send complete or partial manuscripts, proposals, and queries to Mark Gatlin, Smithsonian Institution Press, e-mail: mgatlin@ sipress.si.edu.


The Inaugural Symposium of the Commission on History of Meteorology, IUHPS, on "International Perspectives on the History of Meteorology: Science and Cultural Diversity" will be held on 8-14 July 2001. Papers are requested on international aspects of the history of meteorology, broadly construed to include scientific, environmental, social, political and cultural issues. Participants may also wish to attend the inauguration of the new Commission on the History of Meteorology and participate in its governance. If circumstances warrant, the Commission will pursue publication options for conference papers. Deadline for early registration: 15 December 2000; Deadline for abstracts: 30 April 2001; Online: http://www.smhct.ord/default.htm. Please send your name, affiliation, paper title, and brief abstract to Professor James R. Fleming, President, Commission on History of Meteorology, STS Program, 5881 Mayflower Hill, Colby College, Waterville, ME 04901. E-Mail: jrflemin@colby.edu.

The 4th annual Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies International Conference will be held 11-13 September 2001 in Laurel, MD. Abstracts should be approximately 2 pages long. Please send abstracts to mapld2001@knet-linux.gsfc.nasa.gov. If your abstract is in an attached file, please name the file in the following format: LastName_A.ext - where last name is the name of the first author—e.g., Katz_A.txt. Please include first author information (name, affiliation, phone number, and email address). Additionally, please specify whether you will be submitting your paper for a peer-reviewed publication or a symposium publication. All abstracts should be unclassified. For more information, please go to http://rk.gsfc.nasa.gov/ richcontent/MAPLDCon01/MAPLDCon01_1CallForPapers.html on the Web. Abstracts are due 29 May 2001.

The 116th annual meeting of the American Historical Association will be held in San Francisco, 3-6 January 2002. The Program Committee invites proposals from all members of the Association (academic and nonacademic), from affiliated societies, and from scholars in foreign countries and in related disciplines. In planning the program, the committee seeks presentations that address the entire community of historians and provide opportunities to examine the larger concerns of the profession. Continuing the practice of previous years, the committee encourages the participation of established scholars and also requests, in particular, panels on time periods, regions, topics, and approaches that have been underrepresented in recent AHA meetings. Information on proposing may be obtained from the AHA office at 2002 Materials, AHA, 400 A St., SE, Washington, DC 20003-3889. (202) 544-2422, ext. 104. Fax (202) 544-8307. E-mail: aha@theaha.org. All materials may also be found on the AHA’s web site. Go to http://www.theaha.org and then click on "Annual Meeting."

History and Technology is an international journal which encourages submissions from both graduate students and more established scholars interested in the mutual shaping of technology and society in an historical perspective. To date considerable emphasis has been given to work dealing with the twentieth century. The journal comes out four times a year and usually includes three articles and a small book review section. Guest editors sometimes take responsibility for a single number dealing with a coherent theme. The time to publication is relatively brief as the journal works on a flow system, i.e. when there is enough material available we proceed to publication. Interested authors should submit articles to: Dr. John Krige, School of History, Technology and Society; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta, GA 30332-0345; 404-894-7765; fax 404-894-0535.

The Solar System Development Journal is seeking submissions for inclusion in its premier issue. The Solar System Development Journal is an archival e-journal devoted to documenting the efforts of the private and public sectors to expand the human domain of activity to space, the Moon and asteroids, and the planets in the Solar System. Papers that are encouraged will couple cost and reliability to all technical discussions and proposals. The Journal will become an archival source of information and ideas for those who develop policy, for space entrepreneurs, and for practitioners.

As an e-journal of archival quality, all published papers will be of scholarly and professional quality. To ensure this standard, all manuscripts will be refereed by acknowledged experts and revised to a very high standard. Authors can place a vast repository of information, such as simulations, videos, other graphics and data sets, as a resource to the interested reader. Controversy and disagreement will be encouraged, but such innovative manuscripts must have well-developed ideas with strong arguments that will convince the reader that they are potentially realistic and viable, both financially and technically.

The journal has a Managing Editor and an Editorial Board. All communications will be via e-mail using attachments. Access to the published papers will be free to the reader, and include advertiser support. Copyright information and forms are provided elsewhere.

For additional information, contact Managing Editor, Haym Benaroya, at haymbenaroya@ resonance-pub.com or benaroya@rci.rutgers.edu.


On 20-22 April 2001 the annual meeting of the Business History Conference will be held in Miami, Florida. This year’s theme is "Services and the Global Economy." Contact: Roger Horowitz, BHC Sec’y/Treasurer, P. O. Box 3630, Wilmington, DE 19807.

On 26-29 April 2001 the Organization of American Historians will hold its annual meeting at the Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles, California. Contact: Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington IN 47408-4199, 812-855-9851, e-mail: email: oah@oah.org.

The Southern California Colloquium in the History of Science, Medicine and Technology will also be hosting a conference on Saturday, 28 April 2001, entitled "Science, Technology and Economic Development: How Tight is the Fit?" It will be held in Room 314, Royce Hall, UCLA. Speakers for this meeting will include Joel Mokyr (Departments of Economics and History, Northwestern University), Alice H. Amsden (Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT), Naomi R. Lamoreaux and Kenneth Sokoloff (Departments of History and Economics, UCLA), David Reed (University of North Florida) and Margaret Jacob (UCLA). All papers will be pre-circulated and available on-line at http://www.sscnet. ucla.edu/history/jacob/colloquium. To reserve your seat, please e-mail Margaret C. Jacob, moderator: mjacob@history.ucla.edu.

On 23-26 May 2001 the Society for Military History will hold its annual conference in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Contact: Dr. John Ferris, SMH 2001 Committee, Dept. of History, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr., NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada, e-mail mackie@stratnet. ucalgary.ca.

The Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology announces its Seminar in the History of Biology to be held 30 May-6 June 2001 at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA. This year’s seminar will explore the history of developmental biology, from its inception as "embryology" to the most recent approaches known as molecular developmental genetics and "evo-devo." Organizers for the Dibner History of Biology Seminars are John Beatty, James Collins, and Jane Maienschein (contact maienschein@asu.edu). For further information, please contact: Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Dibner Building, MIT-E56-100, Cambridge, MA 02139, or contact Carla Chrisfeld: carlac@mit.edu or (617) 253-8721.

On 14-16 June 2000 the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations will hold its 27th Annual Conference on the campus of the American University in Washington, D.C. Contact: Richard H. Immerman, Temple University, 9th Floor, Gladfelter Hall (025-24), 1115 W. Berks St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122-5891, (215) 204-7466.

The Fifth Biennial History of Astronomy Workshop will be held July 5-8, 2001 at the University of Notre Dame. The workshop is sponsored by Notre Dame’s Graduate Program in History and Philosophy of Science, Notre Dame’s Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values, the History of Astronomy Special Interest Group of the History of Science Society, and the Historical Astronomy Division of the American Astronomical Society. Steven Dick and Marc Rothenberg are program co-chairs. Persons wishing to register should contact: Astronomy, Center for Continuing Education, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, E-mail: cce.cce.1@nd.edu.

The 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit will be held at the Salt Palace in Salt Lake City, Utah. Of note, this year’s schedule will include re-presentation of papers considered to be "classical" or especially important to the field of solid rocketry in the 20th Century; these papers may include updated information or commentary as appropriate. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (703) 264-7500, (800) NEW AIAA, Fax. 264-7551, Website: http://www.aiaa.org.

On 8-14 July 2001 the XXIst International Congress of the History of Science will be held in Mexico City, Mexico. Contact: Prof. Juan José Saldaña, Chairman of the Organizing Committee, XXIst Int’l Congress of the History of Science, Apartado Postal 21-873, México, D.F. 04000, México, e-mail: xxiichs@servidor.unam.mx.

The 12th Biennial International Conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology will be held at the University of Aberdeen in Aberdeen, Scotland. The theme will be "Nature and Technology." Contact: Andrew Light, SPT Conference, Int’l Center for Advanced Studies, New York University, 53 Washington Square South, Rm 401E, New York, NY 10012, e-mail: alight@ binghamton.edu.

On 12-13 July 2001 the Center for the History of Business, Technology & Society at the Hagley Museum, Wilmington, Delaware, will host a conference entitled "Engineering Postwar Industry in the 1940s-1970s: The Relative Trajectories of Mass and Specialty Production in the U.S., U.K., and Japan." Contact: Philip Scranton, Director, CHBTS, Hagley Museum and Library, P.O. Box 3630, Wilmington, DE 19801.

In August 2001, there will be a symposium on History of Geomagnetics, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Physics and Related Disciplines in Hanoi, Vietnam. For further information contact Dr. Wilried Schroder, Hechelstrausse 8, D-28777, Bremen, Germany.

On 28-30 August 2001 the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Space Technology Alliance will co-sponsor the AIAA Space 2001 Conference and Exposition at the Albuquerque Convention Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (703) 264-7500, (800) NEW AIAA, website: http://www.aiaa.org.

On 4-7 October 2001 the 41st Annual Western History Association Conference will be held in San Diego, California. This year’s theme is "The American West as Living Space." Contact: Western History Association, 1080 Mesa Vista Hall, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1181, (505) 277-5234, e-mail wha@unm.edu.

On 4-7 October 2001 the Society for the History of Technology will hold its annual meeting at the Fairmont Hotel in San Jose, California. Contact: SHOT, Dept. of the History of Science, Medicine & Technology, 216B Ames Hall, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD 21218, 410-516-8349, http://shot. press.jhu.edu/associations/shot/.

On 16-21 October 2000 the Oral History Association will hold its annual meeting in St. Louis, MO. This year’s theme is "Bearing Public Witness: Documenting Memories of Struggle and Resistance." Contact: Leslie Brown, Washington University, 314-935-7279, e-mail: lbrownb@artsci. wustl.edu.

On 22-25 October 2001, The First Flight Centennial Commission is holding a conference commemorating the Wright Brothers entitled "They Taught the World to Fly: The Wright Bothers and the Age of Flight". Inquiries should be directed to Dr. Larry Tise at ltise@ibm.net or to (919) 733-2003 or (919) 715-8959.

On 8-11 November 2001 the History of Science Society will hold its annual meeting in Denver, CO. Contact: History of Science Society Executive Office, University of Washington, Box 351330, Seattle WA 98195-1330, 206-543-9366, e-mail: hssexec@u.washington.edu.

The American Astronautical Society will hold its National Conference and 48th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, CA. Contact: The American Astronautical Society, 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield, VA 22152-2354, 703-866-0020, e-mail: info@astronautical.org.

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

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