Vol. 18, No. 2 May 2001



The 8 May 2001 symposium honoring the fortieth anniversary of human spaceflight was a huge success. The meeting, "Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of U.S. Human Spaceflight," was held in conjunction with George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute and included panels on the history of human spaceflight, the astronaut’s view of spaceflight, and perspectives on the future. Of note, Charles Murray and Catherine Bly Cox, authors of Apollo: Race to the Moon, spoke. Likewise, Neil de Grasse Tyson, Director of the Hayden Planetarium, Robert Zubrin of the Mars Society, and William Shepherd, Commander of Expedition One of the International Space Station (ISS), presented at the symposium. The day’s activities were well attended with approximately 400 people participating. Thanks to all who came and helped to make the day special. Videotapes of the conference are available through NASA’s Center for Aerospace Information. To obtain a copy, contact Eric Vogel at evogel@sti.nasa.gov. The NASA History Office also anticipates publishing a selection of papers from this symposium.


The History Technical Committee of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is planning several sessions on air and space history for AIAA conferences in 2001:

Anyone wishing to deliver papers should contact Tony Springer, AIAA History Technical Committee Chair, e-mail tony.springer@hq.nasa.gov..


Northrup Grumman and Pratt & Whitney have joined the Evolution of Flight Campaign. Spearheaded by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the campaign began in 1999 with the goal of organizing a variety of regional, national, and international events to raise public awareness of aerospace community contributions. Activities will culminate in 2003 with a celebration of the Wright Brothers’ first flight. Other organizations involved in the campaign include Boeing, GE Aircraft Engines, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, Rockwell Collins, and Snecma. Neil A. Armstrong, experimental test pilot A. Scott Crossfield, and U.S. aerobatic champion Patty Wagstaff serve as advisors to the campaign. For more information, check out www.flight100.org.


The Eclipse Project (NASA SP-2000-4523) by Tom Tucker, Monographs in Aerospace History #23, is a joy to read. Tucker details the work by Kelly Space & Technology, Inc., NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, and the U.S. Air Force to flight test a satellite launch vehicle. The concept involved towing the vehicle behind a transport aircraft prior to launch. Utilizing a C-141A as the tow aircraft and an F-106 as the simulated launch vehicle, the flights, which began in December 1997 and ended in February 1998, demonstrated the viability of the concept. Monographs are available by sending a self-addressed 9x12 envelope for each copy with postage appropriate for 17 ounces (typically $3.95 within the U.S., $5.05 for Canada, and $11 overseas–international customers are asked to purchase U.S. postage through www.stampsonline.com) to the NASA History Office, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.

Flight Research: Problems Encountered and What They Should Teach Us (NASA SP-2001-4522) is Monograph in Aerospace History #22. Written by Milton O. Thompson, with a background section by J.D. Hunley, the text originated as an untitled rough draft by Thompson in the early 1970s (Thompson passed away in 1993). Hunley edited this insightful work and provided background on what is now known as NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. Thompson was a flight engineer and a test pilot on programs such as the X-15 and the lifting bodies. Interested readers may obtain a copy by sending a self-addressed 9x12 envelope with appropriate postage for 15 ounces (typically $3.95 within the U.S., $5.05 for Canada, and $11 for overseas–international customers are asked to purchase postage through www. stampsonline.com) to the NASA History Office, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.


We anticipate publishing the fifth volume of a continuing series of key documents in July 2001. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume V, Space Science, Part 1 (NASA SP-2001-4407, 2001), is being produced under the general editorship of John M. Logsdon. The volume will contain documentary materials on origins, evolution, and organization of the space science enterprise at NASA, the history of planetary exploration, and solar-terrestrial physics. A future volume will contain documentary materials on astronomy and astrophysics, microgravity and life sciences, solar science, and Earth science. Stay tuned for more information about this volume, including purchasing information.

Also forthcoming is Uplink/Downlink: A History of the Deep Space Network (NASA SP-2001-4225, 2001), by Douglas J. Mudgway. The book will describe and analyze the complex history of the Deep Space Network (DSN) from its origins, as a result of the early years of the planetary science program in the late 1950s, through its current role as the most capable communications system in the world. It will assess the role of this critical communications method for both providing control to planetary probes and a means of obtaining the scientific data collected. This project is complete and the manuscript is in production. Stay tuned for more information about this volume, including purchasing information.

Also appearing in June 2001 in the "New Series in NASA History" will be Taking Science to the Moon: Lunar Experiments and the Apollo Program, by Donald A. Beattie (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), Hardcover - 336 pages, ISBN: 0-8018-6599-9, Price $42.50. The advertising copy for this work states: "This is a well written, clearly argued book on a topic of very considerable interest to working earth and planetary scientists, historians of science, and spaceflight 'buffs,' as well as an informed public. The science performed during and in preparation for the Apollo missions has drawn relatively little attention given its scope, the number of people involved, and the importance of the results secured. Hence this work helps to fill a surprising gap in the literature, as well as adding a very interesting voice to the existing material on the workings of NASA in the 1960s and early 1970s."—Robert Smith, University of Alberta, Canada. This book may be ordered via the Johns Hopkins University web site at http://www.press.jhu.edu/press/index.htm or by calling 1-800-537-5487.

This in October 2001 Johns Hopkins University Press will also publish in the the "New Series in NASA History" a book entitled, Faster, Better, Cheaper: Low-Cost Innovation in the U.S. Space Program (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), Hardcover - 208 pages, Price $34.95, ISBN 0-8018-6720-7. Written by Howard E. McCurdy, a professor in the School of Public Affairs at American University, Washington, D.C., this book is the first serious attempt to explore NASA's transformation from one in which large-scale space science projects were the norm into one in which projects that are smaller, less expensive, and generally less expansive rule the day. McCurdy offers an excellent introduction to NASA's new management approach and points to further understanding and evolution. It will become required reading for NASA managers and engineers, and it will find a significant audience among space scientists and aerospace leaders around the globe.

In Faster, Better, Cheaper McCurdy details the sixteen missions undertaken during the 1990s—including an orbit of the Moon, deployment of three space telescopes, four earth-orbiting satellites, two rendezvous with comets and asteroids, and a test of an ion propulsion engine—which cost less than the sum traditionally spent on a single, conventionally-planned planetary mission. He shows how these missions employed smaller spacecraft and cheaper technology to undertake less complex and more specific tasks in outer space. While the technological innovation and space exploration approach that McCurdy describes is still controversial, the historical perspective on its disappointments and triumphs points to ways of developing "faster, better, and cheaper" as a management manifesto. In Faster, Better, Cheaper may be ordered via the Johns Hopkins University web site at http://www.press.jhu.edu/press/index.htm or by calling 1-800-537-5487.


The Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (commonly called the Rogers Commission Report), June 1986 and Implementations of the Recommendations, June 1987. This is available on-line at URL: http:// history.nasa.gov/rogersrep/51lcover.htm and makes available detailed information on events prior to the accident, the accident itself, its cause, and recommendations. Also within the report are numerous charts and documents, as well as personal testimony. The Implementations of the Recommendations section, as it suggests, details the actions by NASA in implementing the Rogers Commission's proposals.

The NASA History Office has also added a site covering President Kennedy’s Moon declaration of 1961. The site, titled "The Decision to Go to the Moon: President John F. Kennedy's 25 May 1961 Speech Before a Joint Session of Congress, includes links to full text and audio recordings of the historic speech. The site also contains links to PDF versions of the original documents and the Apollo Project at http://history.nasa.gov/moondec.html

The Ride Report (Leadership and America's Future in Space: A Report to the Administrator by Dr. Sally K. Ride, Aug. 1987) was the product of a task group formed by NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher (1971-1977, 1986-1989). With the goal of stimulating discussion on the future of the organization, the report details initiatives such as solar system exploration, a moon outpost, and human exploration of Mars. The report is available in HTML and PDF formats. The latter includes full color photos. It may be accessed at URL: http://history.nasa.gov/riderep/cover.htm

The Paine Report (Pioneering the Space Frontier: The Report of the National Commission on Space, May 1986) attempted to provide a vision for the future of the American space program. The report contains the "Declaration for Space" and the commission’s list of goals for the program’s future. Please note that this is a full-text html version; no graphics are included due to copyright issues. Special thanks to Eracenia Kennedy and Diane Reid for scanning this document. http://history.nasa.gov/ painerep/cover.htm.

In commemoration of the thirtieth anniversary of the shuttle’s first launch, NASA has created "Wings into Space: The Flight of STS-1, April 12-14, 1981." This site provides a wealth of information on the shuttle program. Included are biographies of key shuttle personnel, essays on the shuttle, a photo gallery, bibliographies, and links to related sites. http://history.nasa.gov/sts1/index.html

"Life into Space" is an overview of space life sciences research conducted by NASA Ames Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. The 35+ years of research are made accessible for general readers and specialists, alike. The two volumes in the set, Life into Space, 1965-1990 and Life into Space, 1991-1998, were published by NASA in 1995 and 2000, respectively. To make the information contained in these volumes more widely available, the Life Sciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center has adapted the print publications for electronic distribution. Each volume is offered in two formats, a Web version for online viewing and searching, and a downloadable PDF version for printing the books in their original format. http://lifesci.arc.nasa.gov/lis_home/


NASA has developed a new Academy of Program Project Leadership (APPL) website. The goal of the APPL web is to continually meet the needs and wants of project practitioners. It is intended to be a meeting place for leaders who want efficient and meaningful information on: the latest research; status of training offerings; stories from leading experts; knowledge sharing; links to important sites; project tools; hot topics; and, learning strategies. Beyond simply looking good, a new design provides for ease of access and, ideally, learning. The upgrade also provides the foundation for a significant expansion toward e-learning and web-based tools and materials. http://www.appl.nasa.gov/knowledge/ask_home..htm

The latest issue of Technoscience is now online. The quarterly newsletter of the Society for the Social Study of Science and Technology (4S) can be accessed via http://www.rpi.edu/dept/sts/ technoscience/2001summer.html.


The History team at Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, remind us that the Plum Brook Nuclear Reactor Facility (PBRF), situated at Plum Brook Station, approximately 60 miles from Cleveland, was taken out of active service in the early 1970s and has been in a standby/safe mode since that time. This facility was used to determine the feasibility of nuclear-powered aircraft and rockets. The decommissioning and dismantling project is a joint venture of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency and local and state agencies. It is expected to take seven years to complete the removal.

Information about the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility is available at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/pbrf/ on the Web. Thanks to Kevin Coleman of Glenn Research Center for supplying this information.

Stennis Space Center (SSC) Public Affairs' History Office organized a round table discussion to document the Center’s evolution from a Marshall Space Flight Center support unit to its present role as NASA's lead center for propulsion testing.

The 90 minute session covered the transition as well as the process initiating propulsion systems testing for future space transportation (X-33 and X-34 programs), and testing for commercial propulsion systems (Boeing's RS-68 engine). Boyce Mix, Director of the SSC Propulsion Directorate; Pat Mooney, Chief of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Project Office; Jack Fabre (Boeing), Space Shuttle Main Engine Processing and Test Manager; Robert Bruce, Chief of New Business Development; Gloria Jordan, Propellents Coordinator; Larrie Kelly, Realty Specialist and one of the first SSC employees; Mike Cockrell, Chief of the Electrical Operations Branch; and the facilitator, Marco Giardino, Applications Development Specialist; comprised the panel.

The history of Stennis Space Center from the early 1960s to 1994, was well documented in Way Station to Space, by Mack Herring, SSC's historian and first Public Affairs Officer. In order to document the 1994-2001 era, the media chosen was videotape. The videotapes will be used in the History Office and copies were provided to the participants. Thanks to Linda Theobald for the information.

The Homer E. Newell Library at Goddard held an Open House on 2 May 2001 to celebrate its fortieth anniversary. The well attended gala featured historical photographs and showcased replicas of the major innovations accomplished by the Goddard Library since its inception.

In honor of Dr. Harry Goett, the first Center Director and an early NASA pioneer, the Center has renamed the Building 3 Auditorium in his honor. The Building 3 Auditorium has been center stage for special events, training seminars, and technical workshops for the past four decades. A large bronze plaque, featuring a likeness of Goett, will grace the wall outside the auditorium's entrance following renovations. During a luncheon at the 39th Goddard Memorial Symposium last week, Center Director Al Diaz unveiled the plaque and saluted some of Goett's many accomplishments. Thanks to Jane Riddle for this report.


On 24 August 2001, Dr. J. D. Hunley, known to all as Dill, will retire as Dryden Flight Research Center's historian, and will become the Ramsey Fellow at the National Air and Space Museum for 2001-2002. He hopes to complete research for and write a history of U.S. rocketry during the fellowship. Dr. Michael H. Gorn, author of The Universal Man: Theodore Von Kármán's Life in Aeronautics (1992) and Harnessing the Genie: Science and Technology Forecasting for the Air Force, 1944-1986 (1988), has already started working in the Dryden History Office and will succeed Dill as Dryden historian. His latest book, sponsored by the NASA history program, is Expanding the Envelope: Flight Research at NACA and NASA. It will be published in fall 2001 by the University Press of Kentucky. Additionally, he has completed research on a biography of Dr. Hugh L. Dryden. Many of you already know Mike and his superb qualifications for the job. Good luck Dill and welcome aboard Mike!

Two interns have joined the Headquarters History Office for the summer. Kristin Delo will be a sophomore at Virginia Tech, and Jonathan R. Hoganson, also at Virginia Tech, is a master’s candidate in history. We welcome them both and hope they have enjoyably productive summers.


The National Archives and Records Administration has a vacancy for an Online Development Specialist (GS-1001-13) to join their Web Program Staff (Vacancy Number: N 01-40B). This person will help lead the redesign of their Intranet site and be involved in a number of other initiatives to modernize their web capabilities. Civil Service status is not required to apply. U.S. Citizenship is required. For the complete announcement go to www.nara.gov/nara/employ. html

The University of Houston-Clear Lake seeks an Associate Librarian/Archivist (Job #01-2129) to be responsible for the management and direction of the UHCL Archives, including the historical collection of the Johnson Space Center.

Job duties and responsibilities of this position will include management of the UHCL archives, including the Johnson Space Center archives; evaluating the status of the archival collection; providing leadership and information to the staff concerning the organization and preservation of special collections; coordinating the transition of university and JSC archival collections; preparing finding aids based on current and emerging technologies such as Encoded Archival Description (EAD); providing budget recommendations; developing operating plans and procedures; monitoring, evaluating, and providing departmental leadership with relationship to developing technologies; providing staff training and development opportunities; preparing archives reports, statistical and qualitative measures, and other analyses on a periodic basis; identifying outside funding sources; preparing grant proposals; representing the library and university as appropriate in committee and task forces as elected or assigned. For more information, please see: http://www.cl.uh. edu/HR/01-2129.htm


The NASA History Office is looking for permanent volunteers. We would like to find a suitable retiree to work approximately 20 hours per week in our office on an ongoing basis. This volunteer need not have specific experience working at NASA, but should exhibit strong interest in aerospace history and be willing to learn. Volunteers would have the opportunity to take on significant responsibilities in editing, researching, answering information requests, and preparing documents for the World Wide Web. For more information, please contact Steve Garber at 202-358-0385 or steve.garber@hq.nasa.gov.

In an ongoing effort to digitize select historical documents chronicling the U.S. human spaceflight program, the history office of the NASA Johnson Space Center is seeking volunteers willing to aid in reviewing and indexing pages of scanned text. Based on the success of the Mission Transcript Collection CD Project in which volunteers from across the globe successfully reviewed, via the Internet, tens of thousands of pages of scanned transcripts from the Mercury through Apollo programs to create a two-CD-ROM, JSC seeks to digitize its remaining mission transcript collection along with other select historical documents. Documents are being scanned in Adobe Acrobat PDF format and additional volunteers are needed to review pages for correct page count, order and quality of scans. Requirements for volunteers include reliable Internet access (high speed DSL connection preferred), familiarity in the use of Adobe Acrobat and MS Excel software and a genuine interest in the history of spaceflight. Volunteers wishing to participate in this project are asked to contact: Glen E. Swanson, Historian; NASA Johnson Space Center; Mail Stop GP2 Bldg. 45 Rm 306; 2101 NASA Road 1; Houston, TX 77058-3696; 281/483-6924; Email: glen.e.swanson1@jsc.nasa. gov.


The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has a new monthly lecture series called "Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion." The lectures are free, open to the public, and held at the AAAS building near Metro Center in Washington, D.C. Upcoming speakers will address such topics as robotics and artificial intelligence, biodiversity, and the Human Genome Project. For more information, please see http://www.aaas.org/spp/dser/ on the Web.


The Smithsonian Institution Press is expanding its publishing program in aviation, space, and military history. In addition, the SIP/National Air & Space Museum’s aviation history series has been expanded to include space history. Now called the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series, the inaugural book in the refocused series is Beyond the Moon: A Golden Age of Planetary Exploration, 1971-1978 by Robert S. Kraemer. SIP is seeking substantive scholarly works and monographs, plus well-researched, well-written histories, biographies, and memoirs. Send complete or partial manuscripts, proposals, and queries to Mark Gatlin, Smithsonian Institution Press, e-mail: mgatlin@ sipress.si.edu.


The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics is now accepting nominations for the 2002 Aerospace History Literature Award and the 2002 History Manuscript Award. The literature award is a new addition and will be given to the best work of aeronautical or astronautical historical non-fiction published in the last five years and focusing on the science, technology, and/or societal influence of events in aeronautical and astronautical history. The manuscript award is given to historical studies of book length and dealing with aeronautical and astronautical issues. For more information, or to obtain a nomination form, contact Peter Gabriel, Honors and Awards Liaison, at 703/264-7623 or via e-mail at PeterG@aiaa.org, or Tony Springer, History Committee Chair at 202/358-0484 or via e-mail at tony.springer@hq.nasa.gov.


History and Technology is an international journal which encourages submissions from both graduate students and more established scholars interested in the mutual shaping of technology and society in an historical perspective. To date considerable emphasis has been given to work dealing with the twentieth century. The journal comes out four times a year and usually includes three articles and a small book review section. Guest editors sometimes take responsibility for a single number dealing with a coherent theme. The time to publication is relatively brief as the journal works on a flow system; i.e. when there is enough material available they will proceed with publication. Interested authors should submit articles to: Dr. John Krige, School of History, Technology and Society; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta, GA 30332-0345; 404-894-7765; fax 404-894-0535.

The Solar System Development Journal is seeking submissions for inclusion in its premier issue. The Solar System Development Journal is an archival e-journal devoted to documenting the efforts of the private and public sectors to expand the human domain of activity to space, the Moon and asteroids, and the planets in the Solar System. Papers that are encouraged will couple cost and reliability to all technical discussions and proposals. The Journal will become an archival source of information and ideas for those who develop policy, for space entrepreneurs, and for practitioners. For additional information, contact Managing Editor Haym Benaroya at haymbenaroya@ resonance-pub.com or benaroya@rci.rutgers.edu.

The Tenth Biennial Conference of Historic Aviation Writers (CHAW) will be held on 19-20 October 2001, in Dallas, Texas. Interested parties are asked to submit a one-page proposal for a 25-minute presentation. The conference has no specific theme and anyone interested in aviation history is invited to participate. For more information, contact Erik D. Carlson, Ph.D. at carlson@utdallas.edu.

On 10-14 September 2001, the Joint European and National Astronomical Meeting for 2001 will be holding a Special Colloquium on the History of Astronomy titled "European Astronomy in the 20th Century." The conference will be held in Munich, Germany and interested individuals are asked to submit paper abstracts by 1 July 2001. For more information contact Dr. Helmut Steinle at hcs@mpe.mpg.de/hcs/ or visit the conference webpage at http://www.MPA-Garching.MPG.DE/ english/conferences/jenam01/.

The Chemical Heritage Foundation and the American Society for Information Science and Technology are pleased to announce "The Second Conference on the History and Heritage of Scientific and Technical Information Systems." The conference will take place 15-17 November 2002. The deadline for abstracts is 15 October 2001. In preparation for this deadline, the group will hold two Preliminary Conference Workshops on 8-9 June 2001 and 15-16 September 2001 respectively. For more information see www.chemheritage.org


The University of Notre Dame is holding The Fifth Biennial History of Astronomy Workshop. The conference will take place on 5-8 July 2001 and is sponsored by Notre Dame’s Graduate Program in History and Philosophy of Science, Reilly Center for Science, Technology and Values, the History of Astronomy Special Interest Group of the History of Science Society, and the Historical Astronomy Division of the American Astronomical Society. Those interested can consult the workshop website at http://www.nd.edu/~histast4/ndvinfo.

The 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit will be held at the Salt Palace in Salt Lake City, Utah on 8-11 June 2001. Of note, this year’s schedule will include re-presentation of papers considered to be "classics" or especially important to the field of solid rocketry in the 20th Century. These papers may include updated information or commentary as appropriate. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (703) 264-7500, (800) NEW AIAA, Fax. 264-7551, Website: http://www.aiaa.org.

On 20-22 June 2001, the Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (IAIR), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the U.S. Coast Guard Research & Development Center, and associated agencies will host Human.Systems 2001: Exploring the Human Frontier. The conference will be held in Nassau Bay, Texas, and devoted to technologies for Human Factors and Psycho-Social Adaptation in Space and Terrestrial Applications. Topics discussed include, but are not limited to, Anthropometrics and Biomechanics Technologies, 3-D Body Tracking, Extravehicular Activity, and Human Robotic Interaction. For more information, see http://www.human.systems.org/index.htm.

On 8-14 July 2001 the XXIst International Congress of the History of Science will be held in Mexico City, Mexico. Contact: Prof. Juan José Saldaña, Chairman of the Organizing Committee, XXIst International Congress of the History of Science, Apartado Postal 21-873, México, D.F. 04000, México, e-mail: xxiichs@servidor.unam.mx.

The International Union of History and Philosophy of Science will hold an Inaugural Symposium of the Commission on History of Meteorology, IUHPS, as part of the XXIst International Congress of History of Science, in Mexico City. The conference seeks to touch on scientific, environmental, social, political, and cultural issues in the history of meteorology. Interested individuals may reference the conference webpage at http://www.smhct.org/default.htm or Professor James R. Flemming at jrflemming@colby. edu

The 12th Biennial International Conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology will be held at the University of Aberdeen in Aberdeen, Scotland. The theme will be "Nature and Technology." Contact: Andrew Light, SPT Conference, International Center for Advanced Studies, New York University, 53 Washington Square South, Rm 401E, New York, NY 10012, e-mail: alight@ binghamton.edu.

On 12-13 July 2001 the Center for the History of Business, Technology & Society at the Hagley Museum, Wilmington, Delaware, will host a conference entitled "Engineering Postwar Industry in the 1940s-1970s: The Relative Trajectories of Mass and Specialty Production in the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan." Contact: Philip Scranton, Director, CHBTS, Hagley Museum and Library, P.O. Box 3630, Wilmington, DE 19801.

On 19-21 July 2001, The Space Frontier Foundation will host "Return to the Moon III Lunar Development Conference." The conference will occur at Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, and focus on strategies for a sustainable lunar community. For more information, consult their website at URL: http://www.space-frontier.org/Projects/Moon/ldc200 1.html

In August 2001, there will be a symposium on History of Geomagnetics, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Physics and Related Disciplines in Hanoi, Vietnam. For further information contact Dr. Wilried Schroder, Hechelstrausse 8, D-28777, Bremen, Germany.

On 28-30 August 2001 the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Space Technology Alliance will cosponsor the AIAA Space 2001 Conference and Exposition at the Albuquerque Convention Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (703) 264-7500, (800) NEW AIAA, website: http://www.aiaa.org.

On 4-7 October 2001 the 41st Annual Western History Association Conference will be held in San Diego, California. This year’s theme is "The American West as Living Space." Contact: Western History Association, 1080 Mesa Vista Hall, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1181, (505) 277-5234, e-mail wha@unm.edu.

On 4-7 October 2001 the Society for the History of Technology will hold its annual meeting at the Fairmont Hotel in San Jose, California. Contact: SHOT, Dept. of the History of Science, Medicine & Technology, 216B Ames Hall, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD 21218, 410-516-8349, http://shot. press.jhu.edu/associations/shot/

As part of the upcoming SHOT conference, Roger Launius, NASA Historian, will chair a session titled "Faster, Better, Not Cheaper: The American Quest for the Ultimate Weapon." The panel, scheduled for 5 October 2001, will discuss and hear papers on reverse salients at the Air Force Satellite Control Facility during the first half of the 1960s, the need for ever increasing speed in U.S. Military Aviation following World War II, and the development of precision guided munitions and their effects on National Security.

On 16-21 October 2001 the Oral History Association will hold its annual meeting in St. Louis, Missouri. This year’s theme is "Bearing Public Witness: Documenting Memories of Struggle and Resistance." Contact: Leslie Brown, Washington University, 314-935-7279, e-mail: lbrownb@artsci. wustl.edu.

On 22-25 October 2001, The First Flight Centennial Commission is holding a conference commemorating the Wright Brothers entitled "They Taught the World to Fly: The Wright Bothers and the Age of Flight". Inquiries should be directed to Dr. Larry Tise at ltise@ibm.net or to (919) 733-2003 or (919) 715-8959.

The Society for the Study of Science and Technology (4S) will hold its next meeting in Boston, 1-4 November 2001. For more information, see http://www.rpi.edu/dept/sts/technoscience/about. html.

On 8-11 November 2001 the History of Science Society will hold its annual meeting in Denver, Colorado Contact: History of Science Society Executive Office, University of Washington, Box 351330, Seattle WA 98195-1330, 206-543-9366, e-mail: hssexec@u.washington.edu.

The American Astronautical Society will hold its National Conference and 48th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, California. Contact: The American Astronautical Society, 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield, VA 22152-2354, 703-866-0020, e-mail: info@astronautical.org.

The 116th annual meeting of the American Historical Association will be held in San Francisco, 3-6 January 2002. Information about this conference may be obtained from the AHA office, 400 A St., SE, Washington, DC 20003-3889. (202) 544-2422, ext. 104. Fax (202) 544-8307. E-mail: aha@theaha.org. Information may also be found on the AHA’s web site. Go to http://www.theaha.org and then click on "Annual Meeting."

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

You may receive NASA History: News and Notes via e-mail. To subscribe, send a message to domo@hq.nasa.gov. Leave the subject line blank. In the text portion simply type "subscribe history" without the quotation marks. You will receive confirmation that your account has been added to the list for the newsletter and to receive other announcements that may interest you. We also post the latest issue of this newsletter on the World Wide Web at http://history.nasa.gov/nltrc.html.

More questions about NASA History in general? Please check out our NASA History Division Home Page at http://history.nasa.gov on the Web. The general public is also invited to come to our office to do research. For further information, please contact our office at 202-358-0384, fax 202-358-2866. Send e-mail to Roger D. Launius at roger.launius@hq.nasa.gov or Steve Garber at steve.garber@hq.nasa.gov. We also welcome comments about the content and format of this newsletter.