THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON SPACE (NCOS)

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NON-VOTING MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON SPACE

CONGRESSIONAL ADVISERS

SENATOR SLADE GORTON SENATOR JOHN GLENN

REPRESENTATIVE DON FUQUA REPRESENTATIVE MANUEL LUJAN

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS

DR. ORVILLE BENTLEY MR. RICHARD SHAY

Department of Agriculture MR. ROBERT BRUMLEY

Department of Commerce

MR. ERICH BLOCH DR. GEORGE KEYWORTH

National Science Foundation DR. JOHN McTAGUE

Office of Science and Technology. Policy

AMBASSADOR JOHN NEGROPONTE MS. JENNIFER DORN

Department of State MS. MADELINE JOHNSON

Department of Transportation

STAFF OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON SPACE

MS. MARCIA SMITH

Executive Director

MR. THEODORE SIMPSON MR. LEONARD DAVID

Director of Planning Director of Research

MS. LINDA BILLINGS MR. RICHARD DALBELLO

Research Associate Research Associate

MS. JULIA SHISLER MS. ELIZA-BETH PEASE

Executive Assistant Administrative Assistant

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF DETAILED FROM THE

NATIONAL AERONAU77CS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

MS. MECHTHILD PETERSON MR. STEVEN HARTMAN

Director of Administration Presidential Management Intern

MS. THERESIA. WISE MS. MICHELLE THOMPSON

Secretary Secretary

MS. DAWN MOORE

Student Aide

CONTRACTORS

MR. S. NEIL HOSENBALL MR. WILLIS SHAPLEY

General Counsel Research Associate

MR. CLAYTON DURR MS. MARY WARD

Research Associate Secretary

GLOSSARY

Aerobrake: An "air brake" used to slow a spaceship with the upper layers of a planet's atmosphere to conserve the spaceship’s propellants.

Artificial Intelligence (AI): The discipline of developing and applying computer systems to produce characteristics usually associated with intelligent behavior, e.g., understanding language, learning from experience, logical reasoning, problem solving, and explaining its own behavior.

Automation: The use of electronic or mechanical machines to perform routine functions with minimal human intervention.

Base: A permanently occupied center for people on the Moon, Mars, or in space that provides life support and work facilities; bases would evolve from outposts (See Outpost).

Biosphere: The total environment of Earth that supports self-sustaining and self-regulating human, plant, and animal life, or an artificial dosed-ecology system in which biological systems provide mutual support and recycling of air, water, and food.

Carbonaceous: A type of meteorite or asteroid containing significant percentages of water, carbon and nitrogen-essential elements, when processed, that would permit humankind to increase its independence from Earth.

Closed-Ecology Life Support System (CELSS): A mechanical or biological system that recycles the air, water, and food needed to sustain human fife on a space station or base.

Cycling Spaceship: A space station designed for human habitation that permanently cycles back and forth between the orbits of Earth and Mars.

Ecosystem: A community of humans, plants, and animals together with their physical environment.

Galaxy: An irregular, elliptic, disk- or spiral-shaped system containing billions of stars. Earth is situated in a spiral-shaped galaxy called the Milky Way, one of billions of galaxies in the Universe.

Geostationary Earth Orbit: A circular orbit approximately 22,300 miles above Earth’s surface in the plane of the equator. An object in such an orbit rotates at the same rate as the planet and therefore appears to be stationary with regard to any point on Earth’s surface. It is a specific type of geosynchronous orbit.

Heliosphere: The large region of space influenced by the Sun’s solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. This vast sea of electrical plasma activity may extend as far as 10 billion miles from the Sun, affecting the magnetospheres, ionospheres, and upper atmospheres of Earth and other Solar System bodies,

Inner Sole System: The part of the Solar System between the Sun and the main asteroid belt. It includes the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars-distinct from the outer planets, Jupiter,

Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.

Libration Points: Unique points in space, influenced by gravitational forces of neighboring bodies, in which objects with the correct initial location and velocity remain fixed without significant expenditure of propellant. They are also called Lagrange points, after the French mathematician who calculated their existence.

Magnetosphere: A region surrounding a planet, extending out thousands of miles and dominated by the planet’s magnetic field so that charged particles are trapped in it.

Mass-Driver: An electromagnetic accelerating device for propelling solid or liquid material, for example, from Earth’s Moon into space, or for providing propulsion by ejecting raw lunar soil or asteroidal material as reaction mass.

Microgravity: An extremely low level of gravity. As experienced by shuttle crews, for example, one millionth the level of gravity on Earth’s surface.

Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle: A device used much like a "harbor tug" in ship operations, with remotely controlled manipulator arms to handle spacecraft and refueling operations with great care.

Outpost: An initial location to provide shelter for a few people on the Moon or Mars; it may not be permanently occupied.

Robotics: The use of automated machines to replace human effort, although they may not perform functions in a humanlike manner.

SCRAMJET: A supersonic combustion ramjet engine which can operate in the hypersonic region of flight,

Settlement: A permanent community of humans in space, or on the surface of the Moon or Mars with life support, living quarters and work facilities; it will evolve from a base (See Base).

Spaceport: A transportation center in space which acts like an airport on Earth. It provides a transport node where passengers or cargo can switch from one spaceship to another, and a facility where spaceships can be berthed, serviced, and repaired.

Specific Impulse: A measurement of engine performance. It is the ratio of the pounds of thrust

198

GLOSSARY

produced by the engine, minus the drag from the engine, per pounds of fuel flowing through the

engine each second.

Tele-operator: A system equipped with its own propulsion system, television camera, and equipment

that can be remotely operated (See Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle).

Telepresence: The use of real-time video communications coupled with remote control techniques

which would provide an operator on Earth's surface or other location with the capability to carryout complex operations in space or on the surface of a planet or moon.

Telescience: Conducting scientific operations in remote locations by tele-operation.

Unpiloted: A spacecraft without human operators.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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The pioneering spirit is part of, humanity’s heritage. America was founded and rose to greatness through the courage of its pioneers. In the past few decades, a new frontier has opened up before us, providing humanity’s greatest challenge and promising its riches rewards-the frontier of space.

How will we meet this challenge? What future does this new frontier hold? How will our lives be improved by the efforts of those who go beyond the limits of Earth? PIONEERING THE SPACE FRONTIER offers an exiting answer to these and many other questions as some of our foremost authorities present their bold vision of our next fifty years in space They will lead you, with the aid of magnificent illustrations from Robert McCall, Ron Miller and William K. Hartman, on a step-by-step journey through a series of space goals within our grasp, culminating in our grandest venture of all.


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