This report was prepared in early 1954 by Mikhail K. Tikhonravov in cooperation with several other designers and scientists from the defense industry and the USSR Academy of Sciences and is the first detailed exposition of plans for the Soviet space program. The report, along with a cover letter from Chief Designer Sergey P. Korolev, was sent to the Soviet government on 26 May 1954 as a formal request to launch an artifical satellite of the Earth.
In the report, Tikhonravov mentions artificial satellites, 'vertical' piloted flights, orbital stations, and missions to the Moon. The largest portion of the report is devoted to details of the first artificial Earth satellite.
Tikhonravov's position as the time was:
At the present time there are real technological possibilities for rockets to achieve the velocity necessary for creating an artificial earth satellite. The most realistic and feasible option requiring the shortest possible period of time is the creation of an artificial earth satellite in the form of an automatic device which would be equipped with scientific equipment, would have radio contact with the earth, and would circle the earth at a distance on the order of 170-1,100 km from the earth's surface. This device we shall call the simplest satellite.
We conceive the simplest satellite as an unmanned vehicle, moving in an elliptical orbit and designed for scientific purposes. The weight of such a satellite could be on the order of 2-3 tons, taking into account its scientific equipment. As we shall see from what follows, at the present time the means of realizing the simplest satellite are essentially clear. Without a doubt some questions require further research, but in any case we are able to discuss the creation of a technical plan for the simplest satellite. The time needed to carry out the plan depends solely on the time needed for the completion of the rocket so that the necessary velocity can be obtained. The planning of the satellite can proceed simultaneously with the construction of such a rocket. If work in this direction is begun right away, the simplest satellite can be realized in the near future.
However, on the basis of these same rockets, as calculations have shown, it is possible to create an entire work program that would gradually bring us closer to the creation of an artificial earth satellite considerably more perfected than the simplest satellite-one on which human beings would be able to exist.
Stated briefly, this work program could consist of the following:
The initial work stage should be the simplest satellite, mentioned above. Along with the simplest satellite this work stage should include humans' mastery of the technique of rocket travel, as well as the development of methods for securing a safe descent from the satellite to earth. We will note that the practical development of these methods is possible, even up to and including the realization of manned satellites.
Thus, by including into the first work stage the human travel in rockets and also the research and development of safe descent methods, a natural transition can be achieved from the simplest satellite to a small, experimental, manned satellite, designed in such a way that 1-2 people can remain in circular orbit for a prolonged period of time.
On this manned satellite, along with scientific tasks, the conditions arising from the prolonged existence of human beings in a state of weightlessness should be studied, and the question of the creation of a satellite-station should be resolved experimentally-this being the next work stage in this direction.
The satellite-station should be of fairly large dimensions and have its own power installations and various equipment. In it the conditions necessary for human existence should be created: questions about air supply, a food regime, etc., should be solved, and a minimal necessary force of gravity should possibly be created. A satellite of this type should also have more or less regular communication with the earth's surface.
It would be difficult to overestimate the importance of such a satellite. It could be in the laboratory for a whole series of scientific research and have enormous economic importance, for example, by providing long-term observation of processes taking place on earth. Finally, it could be the dispatcher station for research of the moon and other planets.
The work stages we have explained
so far will be examined in greater detail later. In the meantime,
our attention will be focused on the first stage of work-the simplest
satellite and the travel of human beings in rockets.
The simplest, automatic satellite can be considered as the first stage in the creation of more perfected and complex satellites. In fact, the simplest satellite is perceived as an unmanned vehicle, and as a result a number of problems connected with lifting a human being into orbit are eliminated. In addition, the simplest satellite can move in an elliptical orbit, which is easier to achieve than a circular one and also the most efficient for a satellite-station. It can be shown that the efficient way of obtaining movement in a circular orbit is to divide the active leg of the flight into two parts. In terms of expenditure of energy the most economical method would be the following: The active leg is chosen in such a way that the velocity vector of the rocket, in relation to the center of the earth at the end of the first part of the active leg, is perpendicular to the radius of the earth. The degree of velocity that exists after the engine stops functioning should provide for the movement of the satellite in an ellipse with an apogee whose altitude is equal to the altitude of a circular orbit. The perigee of this ellipse will coincide with the point at which the engine ceases to function.
At the apogee of this ellipse, additional afterburning of fuel is carried out, after which the satellite goes into a circular or near-circular orbit.
In the case of the simplest satellite, if we omit the afterburning of fuel at the apogee of the ellipse, we will need to determine fairly accurately the point of the apogee and then the orientation of the satellite on this point. Upon doing so, we will then achieve movement in an ellipse, which for a satellite with a circular orbit would be transitional.
Calculations have given the following characteristics of orbit, obtained with the weight of the satellite at 3 tons-not including the weight of the final stage of the rocket, which can be separated from the satellite, but also need not be separated. The altitude of the perigee above the earth's surface is 170 km. The altitude of the apogee is accordingly 1,100 km. As a result of the fairly low altitude of the perigee at which there is some resistance, though insignificant, from the atmosphere, the satellite will finally fall to earth, but not before completing more than 300 orbits, i.e., it will have circled the earth for more than twenty 24-hour periods.
The time span for orbiting the earth is 1 hour and 37 minutes. During 24 hours the satellite carries out 15 orbits, each time shifting its path longitudinally by 24.4° to the west. By decreasing the weight of the satellite, the altitude of the perigee may be increased, and likewise, the length of time for one orbit around the earth is increased. We will deal with this question when we discuss the weight of the satellite.
The site of the blast-off and the direction of the launch of the rocket (the azimuth) are chosen in such a way that the largest possible component of the earth's rotational velocity (v=200 m/s) can be added to the rocket's velocity and that at the same time the flight of the satellite should pass over our territory for the longest possible period of time. The latter consideration is primary. During each 24-hour period the satellite passes over our territory ten times in the course of 16 hours. During this time radio reception of various data from the satellite is carried out. At the moment of going into orbit, the latitude of the perigee is 50°, the longitude 45°, and the azimuth of orbit at the perigee 35°. Here the inclination of orbit is 68°. Here also the satellite will ascend approximately to the Arctic Circle, and will be over our territory for a maximum of 15 minutes during a single orbit.
If the proper moment of launch is chosen, the orbit may require that the plane be perpendicular to the direction of the sun. In this case during the first eight 24-hour periods the satellite will be under continuous illumination by the sun; i.e., it will orbit without passing under the earth's shadow.
Velocity in relation to the center of the earth at the perigee is equal to 8.07 km/s. Velocity at the apogee is 7.05 km/s. The eccentricity of orbit is 0.067.
The shift of the perigee during one orbit as a result of the ellipticity of the earth is 4.35' (to the Southwest), approximately 1° for 24 hours. The maximum change in the inclination of orbit from the initial value is less than ±2.55.
At night, the satellite, if in the rays of the sun, will be visible as a star with a magnitude of -1.75 to 9, depending on the distance from the zenith, the point of observation, and its position (albedo 0.6-0.2).
The maximum overload during the active leg is around 11.
The simplest satellite is designed for obtaining systematic scientific data, for research of the conditions of radio communication, research of the behavior of animals under the conditions of flight, and for obtaining a number of data necessary for the subsequent planning of a manned satellite.
The descent of the simplest satellite to earth can scarcely be implemented without destroying its material part. For this reason we have considered that it would not descend to earth but be eliminated at the necessary moment in time.
However, to preserve a number of scientific data which cannot be transmitted to earth by radio, in the construction of the satellite a special cassette must be provided and retrievable. In this cassette, primary scientific documentation would be preserved. The following possible methods for ejecting and subsequently finding such a cassette can be indicated in a general way:
1. In the event that the satellite is oriented in relation to the earth in such a way that its axis coincides with the tangent to the orbit, then the cassette can be brought to earth as if dropping a bomb from the satellite onto a specified point, while at the same time the cassette decelerates by means of reactive force. If the satellite is oriented in relation to the stars, the moment at which the ejection takes place should be calculated beforehand.
2. The ejection of the cassette can be carried out during one of the last orbits of the satellite before its fall to earth. To do this it is necessary to separate the cassette from the satellite beforehand and stabilize it against aerodynamic forces. A reactive impulse given at the necessary moment with a view to dropping it in a suitable place will cause the cassette to go into a steep trajectory and fall to earth.
Finding the cassette can be carried out in various ways, for example, through signals from a radio transmitter ejected with the cassette, or possibly through the use of a cassette with radioactive material, using special indicators. The place of its fall could be located according to the intensity of radiation emissions from the cassette.
A TV camera unit can also be placed on the satellite for the transmission to earth of instrument readings and other images. The weight of such a unit could be on the order of 300 kg.
The simplest satellite, if no special measures are taken, would be a spatially unoriented body. Such an unoriented satellite would make it possible to establish radio communication with earth and to transmit a number of scientific data. However, to resolve several scientific problems the orientation of the satellite should be determined. This task is fairly complicated, and in the event that it cannot be quickly resolved, the first satellite should be made unoriented since, aside from its scientific importance, the launch of the first satellite in our country would have tremendous political significance.
From among a number of possible solutions to the question of orientation the following may be pointed out:
1. In the case of orientation in relation to fixed stars, it would be necessary to have 4 to 6 telescopes on board the satellite, with stars selected beforehand in their field of vision. Six telescopes would be necessary only in the most disadvantageous situation. Through a successful selection of stars-for example, four stars on the horizon, two ahead of and two behind the satellite at an angle of 60-120°- one could possibly manage with four telescopes. It would be necessary that shortly before the separation of the satellite from the rocket the stars would already be in the field of vision of the telescopes. This could be achieved by calculating the installation of the telescopes beforehand. At the same time it is important that the satellite be released at a definite moment in time within 1-2 minutes, since during this time the sky rotates a total of 15-30°. The telescopes' field of vision should be on the order of several degrees to guarantee the entrance of sufficiently bright, selected stars into the field of vision and to exclude the possibility of other bright stars appearing in the field and disturbing the orientation. From the viewpoint of angular deviations, the movement of present-day rockets during the active leg allows for the realization of such a system.
Signals from photocells installed in the telescopes are transmitted to the controls, either a steam-gas system of nozzles in three planes or a system of flywheels. The latter system would eliminate the use of steam-gas, except during the initial leg of the orbit where the perturbation is greatest. During this leg it would probably be necessary to use the steam-gas system.
The operating principle of the system with the flywheel is as follows: When the airframe of the satellite is exposed to the moment of external perturbation, the alignment on the star of the telescope, which is rigidly fixed to the airframe, is disturbed. In the winding of the rotor of an electric motor, which is rigidly attached to the flywheel, a current is initiated proportionate to the angle of deviation of the airframe and its time derivatives. Because the rotor is in the magnetic field of a stator, mounted in a fixed position on the airframe of the satellite, the rotation of the rotor gives rise to a reverse rotation of the airframe of the satellite, compensating for the perturbation effect of the external moment. Calculations show that with an average angular velocity not exceeding 1 r/min, the practical creation of such a system is possible-i.e., it is possible to eliminate the effect of perturbation before the star goes out of the telescope's field of vision. We will note that during the movement of the satellite along its orbit there is no reason to expect manifestations of perturbation, even on the order that we have indicated* .
2. In the case of orientation in relation to the sun the telescope, rigidly fixed to the satellite, is aimed towards the sun. When the satellite goes under the earth's shadow this orientation is disturbed. For this reason, special equipment must be installed on the satellite that will re-aim the telescope toward the sun after the satellite emerges from the earth's shadow. This equipment could be developed on the principle of using gyroscopes, stabilizing the satellite during its passage through the earth's shadow, or by using the current from hermoelements. In the latter case, the maximum current would coincide with the direction toward the sun. The controls could be installed in the same way as in the case above. We will note that in this type of organization, rotation around an axis pointed towards the sun would not be eliminated.
3. In the case of orientation in relation to the earth a method based on the use of some type of artificial vertical can be suggested. The vertical could be created by means of:
a) photocells aimed towards the line of the horizon. The photocells should be mounted at specific angles and aligned with the horizon up to the time when the satellite separates from the rocket. In connection with the satellite's change in altitude during its movement in an elliptical orbit, the angles between the axis of the satellite, aligned in a vertical, and the axes of the photocells should change automatically. This way, the line of the horizon does not disappear from the photocells' field of vision. The change of angles can be carried out according to signals from the photocells themselves;
b) radio waves (radio vertical). In view of the great distance of the satellite from earth and the consequently small effect of uneven terrain features, the radio vertical would be fairly accurate. Creation of a radio vertical is possible if the necessary electric power capacity can be obtained on the satellite. The controls could be installed in the same way as in the cases described above;
c) special apparatus which makes use of the properties of the earth's gravitational field. Without having dealt in detail with this approach we will only mention that, as preliminary researches show, the satellite could be oriented fairly simply in relation to the earth by making use of the inhomogeneity of the earth's gravitational field-with only fairly small perturbations at the end of the active leg of the rocket's flight.
In addition to the methods of orientation described above, more perfected but more complicated methods are possible, such as astronavigation, for example. But for the completion of a number of scientific tasks our aforementioned methods appear to be sufficient.
Finally, we must deal with the question of radio communication with the satellite. Since direct communication will be possible only within the line-of-sight distance, in a situation where 3-4 receiver radio stations are placed in our territory, the radio equipment of the satellite should include a special memory unit, functioning during the time when the satellite is below the horizon. Then the obtained data could be transmitted during the time when the satellite is passing over our territory.
With regard to the sources of the power supply for the radio station on the satellite, if they are storage batteries, their weight could be estimated at 280 kg for 6 hours of continuous functioning. If we could succeed in solving the question as to the creation of a special power source on the satellite itself, if only we could use solar energy, then we would be able to speak of round-the-clock operation of the satellite's radio station.
On the basis of all that we said above, we can draw up the following approximate table of weights (in kg) for the simplest satellite with a weight of 3,000 kg:
Apparatus for orientation of the satellite..................................................1,300
Use of storage batteries charged for 6 hours' continuous service................280
Use of solar energy (for example, thermocouples)......................................100
Means of communication with the earth:
Radio station with memory.........................................................................170
TV camera unit............................................................................................300
Cassette with apparatus for dropping it to earth..........................................180
Scientific research equipment:
Movie camera, film, animals.......................................................................160 These weights should not all be put on the satellite at the same time. For example, the battery of the storage cells can be replaced by a thermoelectric unit, and the movie camera and the animals need not be taken on every flight. For this reason, the scientific equipment may have various weights. If we take the radio station on every flight, then the scientific equipment can weigh 510-1,070 kg, providing that the power source is storage batteries, or 870-1,250 kg, providing that a power source using solar energy is created.
In the event that it is desirable to increase the altitude of the perigee, a possible feat as already indicated, but only at the cost of reducing the weight of the satellite. Thus, according to calculations, if the weight of the satellite is 2,000 kg, the maximum possible altitude of the perigee for the given rocket is 370 km and the altitude of the apogee is 700 km (V=7.78 km/s), providing that an equivalent substitution of fuel is made for the removed payload, i.e., with an enlargement of the fuel tanks in the last stage of the rocket. Through reducing the weight of the satellite without altering the fuel tanks, the altitude of the perigee can be increased to 310 km and the altitude of the apogee will be 400 km.
With the weight of the satellite at 2,000 kg, taking into consideration the fact that the power plant can be constructed so that it is lighter, the weight of the scientific equipment will be 320 kg provided that the power source is storage batteries, and 500 kg if the power source is one which uses solar energy.
With orbits such as these the satellite
will circle the earth for not less than ten years, after which
it will fall to earth, since the resistance of the atmosphere
at an altitude of 300 km, although it is negligible, still exists.
The work whereby human beings will learn to fly in rockets can be carried on at the same time as the work on the preparation of the launch of the simplest satellite. The purpose of this work is to familiarize human beings with the conditions of flight in rockets in the upper layers of the atmosphere and beyond the atmosphere, especially under conditions of weightlessness.
This work should be carried on in a special program in which the tasks are gradually made more complicated on each flight.
The program of all these experiments should in our opinion be made an integral part of the program of work on launching rockets of the USSR Academy of Sciences. At first possibly vertical ascents by human beings should take place for the purpose of preliminary familiarity with the conditions of flight in rockets,--later, flights which put the vehicle into a horizontal flight leg, with subsequent oblique movement to the surface of the earth and gliding. In these latter flights the velocity during the horizontal flight leg should be gradually increased.
In the ascent of human beings in rockets the most essential consideration is the reduction of G-loads to a tolerable magnitude. This can be achieved by an appropriate throttling of the engine.
In designing the cabin for human
beings the wide experience of aviation can be put to use.
This work can also proceed simultaneously with the creation of the simplest satellite. The purpose of this work is to develop the means necessary for a descent to earth at a speed of re-entry into the atmosphere of 8 km/s. Undoubtedly the development of these means can begin with a study of descent at lesser speeds, with a subsequent gradual increase of speed.
The problem of descent, properly speaking, is a problem of either descent from the satellite or descent of the satellite itself to earth.
We will note that this problem can be solved even before the satellite is created, as soon as it is possible to obtain a rocket with a speed on the order of 7 km/s. In this case the program of the active flight leg should be chosen in such a way that after the engine stops functioning the altitude and angle of inclination of the trajectory would make it possible to begin the descent right away, without going into an elliptical orbit. In the descent to earth it is sound practice to make use of braking in the atmosphere, in order to approach the earth at a speed low enough for safety.
The angle of re-entry into the atmosphere from conditions of safe descent, considering an altitude of 80 km to be the practical boundary of the atmosphere, should desirably be kept within the limits of 0-4°, which, as calculations show, is fully practicable.
For a descent with the use of braking in the atmosphere two methods can be pointed out: a) a ballistic descent, i.e. a descent without the participation of aerodynamic lift forces; b) a descent by means of wings.
In the case of a ballistic descent it is advisable to build the vehicle in the form of a statically stable cone with an aperture angle of 90°. Such a cone, if additional braking devices are available, will be braked considerably in the upper layers of the atmosphere. As approximate calculations show, the equilibrium temperature of the surface of the airframe can be on the order of 1,000-2,000° C. At such a temperature possibly protective refractory coatings could be used, or external cooling by means of the injection of a liquid coolant through pores in the material.
After the speed of travel becomes subsonic, the descent is carried out with the aid of parachutes. With a ballistic descent the control of the flight is considerably simplified,--this being the superiority of this method as compared to descent on wings. However in this case it is difficult to secure G-loads which are sufficiently low to be tolerable to the human body. Approximate calculations show that in the course of 1minute a pilot can be exposed to a G-load of over 5. Maximum G-loads can go as high as 7-10. Through the use of adjustable braking devices maximum G-loads could probably be reduced to 5-6.
Investigation of the second method, that is descent by the use of wings, showed that with a load on a wing of 150-200 kg/m2, a coefficient of lift of C suby = 0.05-0.07, and the total head resistance of the vehicle at approximately five times greater than that of a fighter aircraft, it is possible through a suitable choice of the descent regime (according to ) to secure axial G-loads of less than 3. In this case normal G-loads do not exceed 1.5. In view of the heating up of the airframe of the satellite while moving at high speeds through the atmosphere it is necessary to use special measures of protection, although, as calculations show, the temperature of the airframe of the descending vehicle in this case is 800-1,500° lower than in the case of descent without wings, since the flight is carried out in a more low-angle trajectory. Here the same methods of protection may be pointed out as in the case of the ballistic descent,--the use of refractory materials, or external cooling by means of injecting a coolant through the pores in the material, and its evaporation on the surface of the vehicle. Calculations, carried out by a specially developed method, showed that the necessary supplies of coolant (water) amount to a total of 0.3 kg for 1 m2 of surface for 1 minute of flight. According to calculations the length of time during which the vehicle is exposed to high temperatures is 8 minutes.
Such relatively easy conditions of descent were obtained as a result of the low angles of re-entry into the atmosphere and the consequently prolonged braking in its upper layers. If the angle of re-entry had been 20° for example, the temperatures of the surface of the vehicle would have been considerably greater.
We have noted above that the development of methods of descent can begin with the use of vehicles which have speeds of considerably less than 8 km/s. In the initial stage of the work rockets can be used which have a speed on the order of 3-3.5 km/s.
Thus without a doubt there are technological
possibilities for a successful solution of one of the most difficult
problems in the creation of a satellite,--the problem of the descent
of human beings from orbit to earth.
1. An Experimental Manned Satellite. As a result of the completion of the first stage, which we have discussed, it will be possible to proceed to the realization of the experimental manned satellite. At the present time we consider such a satellite to be a prospect, and therefore the program of the first stage should to a certain extent be constructed with a view to this work.
The experimental satellite is understood to be a satellite designed to put 1-2 men into a circular orbit for a period of several months. The entry into a circular orbit should be carried out according to the method we have indicated above, i.e. with the afterburning of fuel at the apogee of the transitional ellipse. The experimental satellite should be provided with equipment to secure the safe descent of the men to earth. The tasks of this satellite are the study of the conditions of the prolonged presence of human beings on it, the experimental solution of a number of problems of the satellite-station, scientific research, etc.
Without dwelling on the problems whose solution is necessary for the realization of the experimental satellite, we will note that a significant part of them will be solved in the first stage, that is during the realization of the simplest satellite and the mastering by human beings of flight in rockets,--while the remaining problems, as preliminary research has shown, can be solved on the basis of present-day technology. Thus the creation of the experimental manned satellite is possible on the basis of rockets which are presently under development.
2. A Satellite-Station. The task of the creation of a satellite-station can be realistically addressed only after the realization of the experimental manned satellite and after human beings have learned to fly and to live in it, including the ascent, descent, and control of the satellite.
Since at the present time no efficient way can be suggested of lifting a satellite-station which has been produced on earth into any kind of orbit, there only remains the method of constructing such a station directly in the chosen orbit. And so the main problem becomes that of carrying out rendezvous between small satellites of the experimental type, which we have discussed, in outer space in the orbit which has been chosen for the satellite station. As soon as this problem is solved the construction of the station becomes purely a problem of engineering, which we will not pursue in this report.
3. The Problem of Reaching the Moon. We will deal briefly with the problem of reaching the moon in the immediate future. We will present the problem thus: What kind of rocket would be able at the end of its active flight leg to attain a speed of 11.2 km/s, a speed sufficient to reach the orbit of the moon, be required to drop onto the moon or fly around it, and then possibly return to earth? In the latter event landing on the earth would be carried out solely through braking in the atmosphere. The payload weight we will take to be 1.5 tons.
Calculations which have been carried out show that if the ascent of such a rocket were to take place from the surface of the earth it should be of the three-stage "packet" type, and in the event that it were to use engines with a specific thrust in a vacuum of 310 s, it would weigh 650 tons. If the specific thrust were to be increased to 400 s, then the weight would be reduced to 250 tons and the rocket could be two-stage.
If the ascent of the rocket takes place from the satellite-station which we discussed above, and on which the rocket should be assembled and supplied with fuel, then its weight with the specific thrust of the engine at 310 s would be a total of 5 tons.
At its launch from the satellite-station
the rocket, designed for a landing on the moon and return to earth,
would weigh on the order of 100 tons (with a specific thrust of
310 s and the same payload weight as above). Interplanetary flights
are practicable, and the possibility of their realization may
draw considerably closer.
As we have already indicated, at the present time the ways of realizing the first stage of work, which includes the problem of the simplest satellite, are essentially clear. Thus we are able to speak of the creation of a technical project for the simplest satellite. If work in this direction were to begin right away, the creation of the simplest satellite could be realized in the near future.
As regards the problem of human beings mastering the technique of flight in rockets, which also should be included in the first stage, --it could be carried out on presently existing rocket models. Design work could begin and be carried on approximately at the same time as the work on the realization of the satellite.
The scientific importance of the simplest earth satellite is indisputable. A whole series of scientific fields would be interested in the problem of the creation of such a satellite.
The science of physics would be given an opportunity for a deeper study of the nature of cosmic radiation, for example through the prolonged exposure of plates for the purpose of studying the strongest components of cosmic rays, for the study of cosmic radiation in relation to the radiation of the sun in the absence of the atmosphere, and for the study of cosmic rays for a prolonged period of time (on the order of weeks), both in the earth's shadow and in the rays of the sun.
It will be possible to organize a number of experiments for testing the theory of relativity.
The science of physics of the atmosphere will acquire great opportunities for study of the structure of the atmosphere, and especially its upper part,--the ionosphere.
It should be noted that study of the ionosphere with the aid of the satellite will have great significance for radio technology, for example from the point of view of radiation of the propagation of radio waves in the atmosphere.
The study of atmospheric phenomena with the aid of the satellite opens up new opportunities for meteorology, for example by making it possible to receive various data from large areas of the earth at the same time.
Geophysics will be able to study more fully the energy balance of the earth, and also its gravitational and magnetic fields.
Great prospects will be opened for astronomy, as a result of the absence of the atmosphere and the interferences which are connected with it. For example it will be possible to observe and study more fully the radiation of the sun, the spectra of the stars, especially their ultraviolet ends, the atmosphere of the planets, the radiations of outer space, etc.
Without a doubt also in other branches of science problems could be pointed out which can be successfully solved with aid of the satellite.
It must be noted that at the present time it is impossible to give any kind of complete list of the problems which can be solved with the aid of the satellite, since its creation brings us into a completely new and unexplored region. It is beyond a doubt, however, that the creation of the satellite opens up great prospects for diverse branches of science and that even its first flights can lead to a number of new discoveries.
The scientific tasks of the satellite should be concretely defined by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the immediate future. The Academy of Sciences should also designate the make-up of the equipment with which the satellite should be provided.
We will point out that the artificial earth satellite can have importance for defense. This importance will increase with gradual progress in the construction technology for such machines and the realization of the prospects which we have briefly discussed.
Last Updated: August 1, 2007