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Day 4: Lunar Orbit 2 Journal Home Page Day 4: Lunar Orbit 4

Apollo 8

Day 4: Lunar Orbit 3

Corrected Transcript and Commentary Copyright © 2003-2021 by W. David Woods and Frank O'Brien. All rights reserved.
Last updated 2021-02-27
Having gone around the limb again, the crew of Apollo 8 prepare to perform the second Lunar Orbit Insertion burn (DOI-2). This burn, much shorter than the first, will circularise their orbit to about 60 nautical miles or 111 kilometres.
There is only a small amount of dialogue from this far-side pass that has reached us through the transcripts. When recording at low bit rate, the slow speed of the DSE tape is rendering the voice track reproduction unintelligible. We pick up the DSE recording of the crew when the data switch is placed in the High Bit-Rate position and there is less than a minute remaining to the DOI-2 burn.
073:34:25 Lovell (onboard): 42 seconds. 42.
073:34:28 Anders (onboard): Give me a call when the DSKY blanks.
073:34:30 Borman (onboard): Blank!
073:34:31 Anders (onboard): Blank DSKY.
The computer is now working on the calculations of "average-g", ready for the thrust produced by the burn.
073:34:32 Anders (onboard): Okay. Average g is On; Flight Recorder to Record; EMS to Auto.
073:34:38 Borman (onboard): Auto.
073:34:41 Anders (onboard): Check PIPA bias.
073:34:43 Lovell (onboard): Okay.
073:34:44 Anders (onboard): Ullage as required.
073:34:46 Lovell (onboard): No ullage.
The PAD for this burn stated that there was to be no ullage burn, even though the tanks are not completely full.
073:34:47 Anders (onboard): Okay.
073:35:01 Lovell (onboard): Enabled.
The DSKY is flashing "99" and is awaiting the Proceed button being pressed, which will allow it to continue with the burn.
073:35:06 Anders (onboard): 1, 2...
073:35:08 Anders (onboard): 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11...
073:35:17 Borman (onboard): Okay?
073:35:18 Anders (onboard): Okay!
073:35:20 Borman (onboard): Cut-off.
073:35:21 Lovell (onboard): Okay, cut-off.
073:35:22 Anders (onboard): SPS light, Off; okay, Delta-V Thrust A, Off.
With the 9.6-second burn complete, the crew set about ensuring the SPS engine cannot fire inadvertently. Note that the burn was performed using a single bank of valves to the SPS engine. Because of the short duration of the burn, and the desire to minimize even small variations in thrust, the second set of propellant valves were not used.
073:35:26 Borman (onboard): Off.
073:35:27 Anders (onboard): Helium valves are Closed.
073:35:28 Anders (onboard): Okay, barber pole; SPS Gimbal Motors, four, Off, slowly.
073:35:34 Borman (onboard): 1, Off.
073:35:35 Anders (onboard): Got it.
073:35:36 Borman (onboard): 2, Off.
073:35:37 Anders (onboard): Got it. Not quite so fast.
The motors are switched off separately so as not to suddenly change the load on the power busses.
073:35:40 Borman (onboard): Okay. 3, Off.
073:35:41 Anders (onboard): Got it.
073:35:42 Borman (onboard): 4, Off.
073:35:41 Anders (onboard): Got it. Okay, TVC Servo Power, 1 and 2, Off.
073:35:44 Borman (onboard): Off...
073:36:01 Anders (onboard): Proceed. Null residuals and record final residuals. Okay? You got it? [Garble.]
The DSKY is showing the amount of velocity yet to be gained in its three registers. Engine thrust tail-off is an inexact science, and so some small errors in velocity will remain. Frank will use the translational hand controller to add or subtract small amounts of velocity to fine tune the burn. Usually, if such a burn were made during the coasts to and from the Moon, these residuals would be left alone, measured, then compensated for my future burns. In this case, being so near the lunar surface, they would like to get the required Delta-V spot on.
073:36:25 Anders (onboard): Okay. EMS Function, Off.
073:36:29 Borman (onboard): Off.
073:36:31 Anders (onboard): EMS Mode, Standby.
The EMS's task of monitoring the burn is complete and it can be placed in standby mode.
073:36:33 Anders (onboard): BMAG [Body-Mounted Attitude Gyro] Mode, three, Rate 2.
Gyro assembly 2 will provide rate-of-turn information for all three axes for the SCS (Stabilization and Control System).
073:36:37 Anders (onboard): Deadband, Max.
073:36:40 Anders (onboard): Okay, NonEssential - is Off.
073:36:47 Anders (onboard): Trans Control Power, Off.
073:36:59 Anders (onboard): Rot Control Power Direct, Off.
073:36:03 Anders (onboard): SPS, Pitch and Yaw circuit breakers, Open.
073:37:08 Anders (onboard): Are they Open? Then Close them.
We suspect a transcription error here. The checklist calls for these circuit breakers to be opened and with the burn over, there is no reason for them to be closed.
073:37:09 Anders (onboard): Okay, proceed.
073:37:13 Anders (onboard): Turn to Verb 82 and Enter.
073:37:44 Anders (onboard): Verb 82. Proceed.
Verb 82 displays the details of their new orbit so they can note it down.
073:38:08 Anders (onboard): Got it? 00, Enter.
073:38:12 Anders (onboard): Proceed, and then line 37: 00, Enter.
Having noted their orbital parameters, they change to program 00.
073:38:24 Anders (onboard): Enter Verb 66.
Verb 66 passes the spacecraft's state vector to spare slots in the computer's erasable memory.
As the spacecraft is being tidied up after the burn, Jim is scheduled to begin a two-hour rest period. His relative lack of presence on the transcript shows that he at least took a back seat for much of that time. Bill will perform the next platform realignment at 074:30 instead.
073:39:14 Anders (onboard): Okay, SPS [garble].
This is Apollo Control, Houston; at 73 hours, 40 minutes into the flight. Our present orbital data, at the last time I gave you, still carries a perigee (means perilune) of 60.8 nautical miles [112.6 km], that perigee occurring at 8 degrees north by 89 degrees west. An apogee (means apolune), an estimated apogee - this would be, of 60.4 [111.9 km], this would be after circularization. The Flight Plan at this point is very busy, all three pilots have considerable tasks to do, as opposed to the last several days when their columns were virtual blanks. For instance, at 73 hours, 40 minutes, right along about now, Frank Borman is busy doing a platform alignment to a specific number, then he is called upon to roll right 180 degrees into a 2-second [per] degree pitch down and so forth. At the same time, Jim Lovell is doing a number of vectors, he is working on the RCS monitors in sharing the values in the tank there and then shortly he is to start a rest period in about 10 minutes, a 2 hour rest period and at the same time Bill Anders is busy with a battery charger. He is doing a SPS monitor check and he is to put a program to acquire the High Gain Antenna via the Manned Space Flight Network at a specific time. During all this, he will be - the biomedical switch will be on him - so we will be following his heart action. All in all, a very busy period onboard. We are due to acquire the spacecraft in about 6 minutes. At 73 hours, 43 minutes into the flight, this is Houston.
Note that Jim carried out a platform alignment over an hour ago. What the PAO announcer seems to have been confused by is the GDC Align operation in the Flight Plan directly after the LOI-2 burn. This is to align the spacecraft's secondary attitude reference to match that of the platform so that both systems have an identical notion of which way up the spacecraft is. The GDCs get their attitude information from the BMAGs and that system has a much larger rate of drift than the platform in the IMU.
Before they re-emerge from around the Moon, Bill uses the DSE to leave some voice notes to help the photo analysts keep track of what he has been doing so far with the cameras.
073:46:36 Anders (onboard): Okay, let's do the - on this DSE again.
073:46:48 Anders (onboard): Now, I think we - I told you earlier what I thought I'd do [garble] and I discovered that [garble] I ended up with the high-speed film, in one of the cameras - I believe it was the second rev. And it's my feeling that the - target 12 was accomplished. And I believe that targets 10, 14, 16, and 19, and possibly 20 and 21 were taken with high-speed film. What is important is you should know between which craters I changed to the other camera. I believe that [garble] and possibly Taruntius were taken with the proper film. Also [garble] probably 31 and 40. Terminator photography was taken at the end of the first rev, properly configured, as indicated previously, [garble].
073:48:49 Lovell (onboard): One was at 26.
073:48:56 Anders (onboard): Okay, terminator photography was accomplished at the morning far-side terminator, [garble] and I believe we had the high-speed camera. We used the 16-millimeter camera [garble] with the proper f-stop. It's been rather difficult to - to keep [garble] on rev 2. [Garble.]
Bill has discovered that he has used the wrong film for some of his photography. Soon he will tell Mission Control of the problem directly.
This is Apollo Control, Houston. We expect to acquire momentarily. The first call has gone out. We have acquired; we are reading good tank pressures, and here goes the first call.
073:49:25 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]
073:49:40 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]
073:49:53 Anders (onboard): Magazine U, I have 47 exposures used, and high speed on 40 of them. We are now set up for magazine K for the - training photography, and magazine U, 70 millimeter, [garble].
073:50:17 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.
073:50:27 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8. Over.
073:50:28 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Loud and clear. How me?
073:50:40 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8. Over.
073:50:42 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Loud and clear. How me?
073:50:49 Anders: Roger. Reading you loud and clear, and ready for the burn status report.
073:50:53 Carr: Roger. Ready to copy.
073:50:56 Borman: Roger. The burn was on time, 11 seconds, 0.2 with a VGX, 1.8; VGY - that's minus 1.8; minus 0.2, VGZ; Delta VC was minus 9.4. Verb 82 gave us an apogee [means apolune] 62 and a perigee [means perilune] of 60.8.
To interpret, when the 11-second burn was over, the spacecraft was 0.2 foot per second (0.06 metres/second) short of the velocity it wanted in the X direction (parallel to its motion), it had overshot its required velocity in the Y direction (perpendicular to its motion) by 1.8 fps (0.55 m/s) and it was 0.2 fps (0.06 m/s) short in the Z direction, which is parallel to the local vertical. The display of their velocity change on the EMS overshot by 9.4 fps which would be expected as it does not account for the tail-off thrust that comes from the engine after shutdown. Finally, the onboard computer's determination of their orbit is that their apolune is 62 nautical miles (114.8 km) and their perilune is 60.8 nautical miles (112.6 km). With the spacecraft acquired by the stations on Earth, an independent determination of their orbit will be made.
073:51:42 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Roger. Your burn was on time, 11 seconds; VGX was plus 0.2, VGY was minus 1.8, VGZ minus 0.2, Delta-VC minus 9.4, apogee 62, perigee, 60.8. Over.
073:52:16 Borman: Roger.
Long comm break.
073:52:21 Lovell (onboard): Hey, Bill.
073:52:22 Anders (onboard): Yes.
073:52:23 Lovell (onboard): Are you looking for one of those [garble]?
073:52:54 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] if that's where you put it.
Apollo Control here. That circuit is noisier than we caught on the last two passes, but we have heard the crewmember, I think Borman, confirm an apogee of 62 miles, a perigee of 60.8, a virtually perfect second burn, giving us a circular orbit. We will continue to leave the line open.
Apollo Control again. Apogee on this, the third revolution around the Moon will occur at 80 degrees west longitude, 9 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude. Those are lunar coordinates of course. The perigee on this rev will occur at 9 degrees, 29 minutes south latitude and 99 degrees, 28 minutes east longitude. That will be on the back side of the Moon. And our numbers now show an apogee of 60.9 [nautical miles, 112.8 km] versus of perigee of 60.5 [nautical miles, 112.0 km], compared to 62-[nautical] mile apogee and a 60.8-[nautical] mile apogee [means perilune] from the crew. Excellent agreement.
Already, an Earth-based determination of their orbit has been made which is in good agreement with the figure computed aboard the spacecraft. The circularisation of their orbit has made the positions of apolune and perilune irrelevant but for what it is worth, these points have rotated nearly ninety degrees around the Moon, a sign that the burn was stopped when the orbit had become about as circular as it was going to get.
Photography continues on magazine E as Bill photographs Target of Opportunity 58.
AS08-13-2262
AS08-13-2262 - A fresh, light-walled crater on the northwest rim of Sklodowska that is the subject of this target. The crater resulted from an oblique impact as shown by the characteristic excluded zone where the rays are missing - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
In the foreground of 2262 is Ritz B with the eastern rim of Ritz itself visible down the right-hand side of the image.
AS08-13-2263
AS08-13-2263 - Landscape between the crater Ritz and the spacecraft - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2264
AS08-13-2264 - The 51-km Ritz - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2265
AS08-13-2265 - Crater Ritz is cut off to the left - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
073:57:30 Anders (onboard): [Garble] number 58, magazine - C.
Bill is still recording notes on the DSE as well as continuing the photography.
AS08-13-2266
AS08-13-2266 - View south across the east rim of the 94-km crater Ansgarius - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2267
AS08-13-2267 - View south across Ansgarius - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2268
AS08-13-2268 - View south across Ansgarius - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
The slumped walls of this crater are well shown and it is interesting to note the relatively puny size of the central peak. This is a very old feature and one interpretation for its flat floor and small central peak is that the interior was filled aeons ago by ejecta from the impact formation of the great near-side basins, partially burying the original peak. The two small craters just outside the rim of Ansgarius are unnamed.
AS08-13-2269
AS08-13-2269 - View south to the 55-km crater Behaim. The southwest rim of Ansgarius is in the foreground - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
A very different looking central peak stands within Behaim, south of Ansgarius. This is Target of Opportunity 63. It's smooth contours may again be explained by a blanket of ejecta covering the original central mountain.
073:59:06 Anders: Houston, how do you read? This is Apollo 8.
073:59:09 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Weak but clear.
073:59:15 Anders: You're loud and clear.
Comm break.
074:00:49 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. We're on High Gain now if you want to get the high-speed data to look at that burn.
074:00:56 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Roger. [Pause.]
074:01:01 Borman (onboard, may be Anders): Okay, I think I've made a mistake, on the last DSE [garble] I've gotten confused here.
074:01:04 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. We are taking the DSE.
074:01:11 Borman: Thank you. Can you hold it for about 5 seconds - or about one minute?
074:01:17 Carr: Roger. Holding.
074:01:30 Borman: Okay.
074:01:31 Lovell (onboard): Wait just a second; 58 is not around - starting on frame 61.
074:01:39 Borman: Okay. You can dump the data now.
074:01:42 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. We are taking the DSE for dump.
074:01:51 Borman (onboard): Did you get it?
074:01:55 Borman: Thank you. We have - updated the LM state vector with the Verb 66, Houston.
074:02:01 Carr: Houston. Roger.
AS08-13-2270
AS08-13-2270 - View south to Target of Opportunity 65; crater Kapteyn, 49 kilometres in diameter - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
Around now, Bill and Frank are scheduled to begin a session of training photography. Seven minutes before flying over a landmark in Mare Tranquillitatis, Bill begins photographing it, even though it is nearly on the horizon. He is using the 16-mm camera and the Hasselblad using magazine E, taking a shot every 20 seconds.
AS08-13-2271
AS08-13-2271 - Mare Tranquillitatis - First frame of photo training exercise - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
The result of the Hasselblad photography is a remarkable series of images from AS08-13-2271 that, when looked at sequentially, form a movie of the passing landmark.
The 16mm movie photography is taken using magazine K.
H.264 MOV video file.
An exceptionally quiet pass across here. We are reading a pitch, 192 degrees; it's down, and yaw, 356 degrees; a 177-degree roll degree attitude - a very steady attitude and I believe they are in orbital rate; that is a rate calculated to hold their windows in a specific position and move them in - as they move across the face of the Moon. Lovell should be in a rest period, 2 hours duration now. Perhaps that is why they are keeping quiet. Bill Anders is extremely busy taking pictures. 70-millimeter and 16-millimeters - 70-millimeter stills - 16-millimeter movies.
074:06:43 Anders (onboard): Houston, Apollo 8. [Garble] meal 4, day - day 4, meal [garble].
This is Apollo Control, Houston. We are 52 minutes from Loss Of Signal on this pass and let us look over our ECS, Environmental Control Summary Table. The cabin pressure, 4.9 [psi, 33.8 kPa] and holding very nicely. The cabin temperature, 77 degrees [Fahrenheit, 25°C]. I think that's up a few degrees from yesterday. I don't recall exactly. In general we can expect to see, we should be seeing a slight rise in temperature, this was predicted by the thermo[dynamics] people, a rise particularly, in the outside temperature, the outside skin temperature of the spacecraft, a rise of something like 10 to 12 degrees [Fahrenheit, 6 to 7°C]. This was based on an estimate from the [spacecraft number] 102, the Apollo 7 flight and the experience to date in deep space. The point to be made is that it's - the spacecraft is slightly cooler as it traverses from Earth to Moon, than it is while in orbit about either body, slightly colder on the outside, inside remains relatively stable. A very quiet period and so we will just take the line down, if something occurs we will come back up immediately. At 74 hours, 10 minutes into the flight; this is Apollo Control, Houston.
Apollo Control here, 74 hours, 12 minutes. After a long quiet period there, Mike Collins put in a call and he is getting some conversation from Frank Borman, be it ever so brief. Let's hear it now, and we will catch up and go into the live situation.
074:11:38 Collins: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Over.
074:11:42 Borman: Hello, Michael.
The Green Team under the leadership of Flight Director Cliff Charlesworth has taken over the consoles at Mission Control.
074:11:44 Collins: Hey, good morning, Frank. We've been tracking you for about 18 minutes now, and we show your orbit 61 by 61½. Over.
074:11:54 Borman: Thank you. [Pause.]
074:12:02 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Your SPS engine looked good on LOI number 2 burn.
074:12:11 Borman Thank you.
Long comm break.
074:16:24 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
074:16:29 Borman: Go ahead.
074:16:30 Collins: Bill has got the tape recorder now; we are evaluating the dump. The data is good, and we are evaluating the voice quality here shortly.
074:16:41 Borman: Thank you.
074:xx:xx Collins: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Over.
074:xx:xx Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
074:xx:xx Collins: I've got a few jolly updates for you when you are ready to copy.
074:xx:xx Borman: Stand by.
This is Apollo Control, Houston, over all of this noise. We will take the line down at this point, and try and figure out where the source of all of our noise is. Fortunately it is an extremely quiet pass; but if there is any further conversation, we will come back up and play it for you. It's 74 hours, 21 minutes into the flight, this is Apollo Control, Houston.
074:21:33 Borman: Go ahead, Houston, with your updates.
074:21:36 Collins: Roger. Apollo 8, Houston. I have a TEI-3, TEI-4 and map update for rev 3 and 4 to read to you. Actually, the TEI-3 update which you have onboard is still valid, but we will not update that one. Which do you want first, the TEI-4 or the map update?
074:22:03 Borman: TEI-4.
074:22:05 Collins: All right. This is the TEI-4 update: SPS/G&N; 45695; minus 0.53, plus 1.41. Are you with me so far? Over.
074:22:34 Borman: So far.
074:22:36 Collins: Very good. 077:21:27.58; plus 3062.7, minus 0062.5, plus 0057.7; 180, 018, 001; not applicable, plus 0018.8; 3063.9, 2:56, 3045.2. Are you with me so far? Over.
074:23:50 Borman: So far seems [garble]. Hold it a minute though, will you?
Apollo Control here. ... One other pertinent comment ..., Frank Borman said - we had noted, that his - the voice quality of Bill Anders was not quite what it should be on the data record system and which is being dumped here each rev back to Houston. This was noted and Bill said they were all so busy right now he would do what he could, make notes on the Flight Plan and that sort of thing, but we just have to understand. ...
074:24:11 Borman: Okay. Go ahead.
074:24:13 Collins: Okay, the last number I gave was Delta-VC, picking up at the sextant star; 40, 273.0, 39.6; 033, down 03.0, left 1.9. Are you with me? Over.
074:24:52 Borman: Roger.
074:24:53 Collins: Okay. Plus 08.58, minus 165.00; 1296.0, 36195, 146:37:21. Comment: north set of stars Sirius and Rigel; roll, 129; pitch, 155; yaw, 010; ullage, 2 quad, 20 seconds from quads Bravo and Delta. Horizon on 2-degree line at time of ignition minus 3 minutes. Over.
The PAD is interpreted as follows: The next five parameters all relate to re-entry, during which an important milestone is "Entry Interface," defined as being 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude. In this context, a more important milestone is when atmospheric drag on the spacecraft imparts a deceleration of 0.05 g. There are two comments appended to the PAD. The first is that the ullage burn to settle the contents of the propellant tanks would use RCS jets B and D for twenty seconds. Also, if they are at the correct attitude for the abort burn at three minutes to ignition, they should expect the Moon's horizon to line up with the 2° marks on the left rendezvous window.
074:26:15 Borman: Roger, Houston. We got a TEI-4; SPS/G&N; 45695; minus 0.53, plus 1.41; 077:21:27.58; plus 3062.7, minus 0062.5, plus 0057.7; 180, 018, 001; N/A, plus 0018.8; 3063.9, 2:56, 3045.2; 40, 273.0, 39.6; 033, down 03.0, left 1.9; plus 08.58, minus 165.00; plus 1296.0, plus 36195, 146:37:21. Sirius, Rigel, 129, 155, 010; 2 quads, 20 seconds, B and D. Horizon 2 degrees at TIG minus 3 (minutes).
074:27:26 Collins: That's about the size of it, Frank, and a map update for revs 3/4 when you are ready.
074:27:38 Borman: Ready.
074:27:40 Collins: Revs 3/4, LOS, 75:01:23; Sunrise, 75:10:16; Prime meridian, 75:17:16; AOS, 75:47:18; Sunset, 76:23:11; Remarks: Subsolar point, 75:46:55; IP-1 acquisition, 76:11:17; IP-2 acquisition, 76:12:30. For IP-1 and 2 those ACQ(uisition) times are for the shaft and trunnion angles equals zero. Over.
This map update refers to events and landmarks that will be encountered during the third and fourth revolutions around the Moon. It is interpreted as follows: As they approach the pseudo landing site, they use two initial points to help them with spotting the landing site, one on the western shore of Mare Fecunditatis, the second being the mountain that Jim has newly named, Mount Marilyn. Timings for both have been given based on when they become visible in the sextant when set to its zero position.
074:27:53 Borman: Roger. Thank you. 75:01:23, 75:10:16, 75:17:16, 75:47:18, 76:23:11; Subsolar, 75:46:55; IP-1, 76:11:17; IP-2, 76:12:30; and at shaft and trunnion at zero.
074:29:16 Collins: That's affirmative, Frank.
Long comm break.
074:32:53 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
074:32:57 Borman: Go ahead, Houston.
074:32:58 Collins: Roger. When Bill gets a minute, we'd like to get battery B started charging. Over.
074:33:07 Borman: Roger. Thank you. He'll take a minute right now.
Comm break.
While Jim has a scheduled rest period, Bill performs a P52 platform realignment. For this, he sights on star 16 (Procyon, Alpha Canis Minoris) and 23 (Denebola, Beta Leonis). The alignment is performed admirably with the star angle error (a comparison of the angle measured by Bill between the two stars and the actual angle between them) being only 0.01°. Frank has stopped the orb-rate rotation of the spacecraft and "gone inertial" which simply means that the spacecraft's attitude is now fixed with respect to the stars.
This is Apollo Control, Houston; 74 hours, 35 minutes into the flight. And in the last 10 or 15 minutes we've had a couple of brief exchanges with the crew, who still seem to be in a rather resting mode, but here are those exchanges, primarily numbers updates. We have the tapes.
074:36:01 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
074:36:07 Borman: Go.
074:36:08 Collins: Roger. For Bill - the voice quality on the backside DSE is extremely poor. We consider it unusable, and we recommend that all pertinent comments be hand recorded so we don't lose them. We should not count on using the tape at low bit rate for voice.
074:36:32 Anders: Okay, Houston. We're getting so busy that we are having a hard time trying to do a neat job of logging. I'll try to do it on the Flight Plan; and if I make any visual observations, we'll put them on the DSE and I'll try to scribble some notes here and there.
074:36:49 Collins: Roger. Understand. Now high bit-rate is working great.
The only part of the last pass that has survived is the section that was recorded in high bit-rate.
074:36:59 Anders: Roger.
Comm break.
074:38:27 Borman: Hey, Houston, Apollo 8.
074:38:30 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.
074:38:35 Borman: How about giving us the TV times for the ninth rev, will you please?
074:38:38 Collins: Yes, we sure will, Frank. Stand by.
Comm break.
When it comes, this will be the fourth TV transmission of the flight and, as it will turn out, by far the most historic.
074:40:36 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
074:40:40 Borman: Go ahead.
074:40:42 Collins: Roger. We were checking into precise start and stop time for TV, and you are Go for the next rev. Over.
074:40:51 Borman: I understand; Go for the next rev. Mike, we'd like to, if we could, time the TV to a passing over the terminator. We would like to track the terminator with the TV; think that's the most impressive thing we've seen, and that might be the best thing rather than trying to acquire the Earth.
074:41:07 Collins: Okay, Frank. That's one of the things we are looking at right now. We have you ending at about 86 hours and we're looking at extending that few minutes to include that terminator view. Over.
074:41:23 Borman: Okay, I don't want us to run into rev 10 very much at all, though.
074:41:28 Collins: Roger. Understand.
Rev 10 will be their last full orbit around the Moon. In view of the lack of sleep his crew have had and the importance of alertness for the engine burn to return to Earth, Frank wants to keep the time after the TV transmission clear to give everyone a rest. However, he is very keen that the terminator be shown on the TV. The TV system has a poor signal to noise ratio and does not show the bland features of the noonday lunar surface well. The stark light and dark of the terminator scenery will be much more suitable, especially for the show Frank has planned.
074:41:30 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8.
074:41:31 Collins: Go ahead, Apollo 8.
074:41:36 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
074:41:37 Anders: ...since the DSE qual[ity] is not so good. How do you read, Mike?
074:41:43 Collins: I read you loud and clear. You were cut out about the DSE Say again.
074:41:50 Anders: Roger. Since the qual[ity] isn't so good, let me give you a quick rundown of the status of photo targets. You ready to copy?
074:41:59 Collins: Ready to copy.
074:42:05 Anders: Okay. At rev 1, we got photo target 90 and terminator photography south for near-side terminator. Starting on rev 2, we've got target 12 and targets 10, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21 and 23. Unfortunately, we got into a high - I got into the high-speed film there somewhere, and I think those 250-mm targets were on high speed. We did change film, and starting out in Tex - Crater Texas, with target 28, 31, 40, 36, plus several targets of opportunity that were recorded on the DSE, but apparently lost. Have you been able to copy?
Bill's admission that he has grossly overexposed the high speed type-2485 film by inadvertently having magazine G on the camera will lead to careful measures being taken at the photo laboratory, as explained in the post-flight mission report.
From the 1969 Mission Report: "The film was not used for the dim light astronomical experiments, as planned, but for general lunar surface photography, and a film speed of 80 was erroneously assumed, rather than the actual 2000. This difference is about a six-stop overexposure and far beyond the latitude of the film. A special chemistry and processing technique was formulated to preserve the recorded data, but it was discovered that the chemistry could not be changed fast enough to prevent the image from chemically destroying itself. A procedure was developed to use special film reels in a large tank. The process was accomplished at 68°F [20°C], including a bleach step to remove the effect of the vastly overexposed silver and produce a more normal negative. The technique proved highly successful and satisfactory images were obtained. The wide-latitude processing could significantly reduce workload on future flight crews by permitting more nearly constant exposure settings."
Only the first 17 images from magazine G are taken from lunar orbit, most likely at the start of the second revolution. The subsequent 64 frames will be taken after TEI as the Moon recedes.
074:43:13 Collins: Yes, I'm with you, Bill. Keep going.
074:43:18 Anders: Okay. I might be calling up too fast. Okay. On the third rev, we got target 58 and 63 and 65. The training photography was accomplished, and it was done on magazine D, which now has - correction, that's magazine E - which now shows 95 exposures. Magazine D is fresh. Magazine K was also used for training photography, and it's showing 0.51. [25.1 is value in PAO, 0.51 is recorded in Tech transcript].
Magazine K is a 16-mm film.
074:44:22 Collins: Roger, we copy all that, Bill. [Long pause.]
074:44:36 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
074:44:37 Borman: ...Mike, this is Frank again.
074:44:38 Collins: Go ahead, Frank.
074:44:40 Borman: Go ahead.
074:44:41 Collins: Roger for Bill.
074:44:42 Borman: ...around.
074:44:46 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston standing by.
074:44:51 Borman: I said is Rod Rose around?
074:44:54 Collins: Stand by one, Frank; we'll look for him, and while we're doing that, for Bill the DSE voice quality on high bit rate is very good, so if he wants to use the DSE in high bit rate for a limited amount of time to record important things, we suggest that he do that. We would like him to wait 20 seconds after turning it on prior to talking. Over.
074:45:28 Anders: Roger. Copy.
074:45:30 Collins: Thank you, Bill. [Pause.]
074:45:38 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
074:45:43 Borman: Go ahead.
074:45:44 Collins: Rod Rose is sitting up in the viewing room; he can hear what you say.
074:45:50 Borman: I wonder if he is ready for experiment P-1?
074:45:56 Collins: He says thumbs up on P-1. [Pause.]
Rod Rose is a fellow member with Frank at St. Christopher's Episcopal Church near Seabrook, Texas, as well as being an engineer at Mission Control. Of course, "Experiment P-1" is a codeword for a pre-arranged reading for Frank's church.
074:46:04 Anders: Houston, with reference to the DSE on high bit rate, what I would like to do then is - if you got the last pass - I'd like to play it - run it back and start at AOS on low bit rate and then go to high when we need it. How would that be?
074:46:27 Collins: John Aaron buys it.
074:46:32 Borman: Okay, Mike. This is Frank again.
074:46:36 Collins: Go.
074:46:40 Borman: Roger. Rod and I got together, and I was going to record a little - say a little prayer for the church service tonight. And I wonder - I guess that's what we are ready on?
074:46:56 Collins: Stand by one, Frank.
074:47:00 Borman: All right.
Comm break.
Author, Bob Zimmerman expands on this episode in his book Genesis: The Story of Apollo 8. Frank had wanted to participate as a lay-reader in the Christmas service at his church but the flight of Apollo 8 precluded that. His fellow parishioner, Rod Rose, suggested that Frank read a prayer from the Moon which could be replayed during the service. Frank is about to make that reading.
074:49:41 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. Are you still there?
074:49:43 Collins: You're still loud and clear, Frank. [Long pause.]
074:50:01 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead, Frank, with your message.
074:50:07 Borman: Okay. This is to Rod Rose and the people at St. Christopher's, actually to people everywhere. Give us, O God, the vision which can see thy love in the world in spite of human failure. Give us the faith to trust the goodness in spite of our ignorance and weakness. Give us the knowledge that we may continue to pray with understanding hearts, and show us what each one of us can do to set forth the coming of the day of universal peace. Amen.
074:50:35 Collins: Amen.
074:50:36 Borman: I was supposed to lay-read tonight, and I couldn't quite make it.
074:50:42 Collins: Roger. I think they understand.
Comm break.
074:51:57 Borman: Houston, how do you read? Apollo 8.
074:52:02 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.
074:52:07 Borman: Roger. Go ahead.
074:52:09 Collins: Roger. Frank, we'd like to know about the water chlorination. Have you - when was the last time you chlorinated the water? Over.
074:52:16 Borman: About an hour and a half ago; we've already done it.
074:52:22 Collins: Roger. We copy you an hour and a half ago. Affirmative?
074:52:28 Borman: Roger. You know we wouldn't forget that.
074:52:36 Collins: Roger.
074:52:40 Borman: Jim spilled a little, and it smelled like a bucket of Clorox about an hour ago.
074:52:51 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Say again.
074:52:57 Borman: I said Jim inadvertently spilled some of that chlorine, and it smelled like a bucket of Clorox in here a little while.
074:53:06 Collins: Roger. Understand.
Long comm break.
The spacecraft's water system has a small, rubber-membrane port through which an ampule of chlorine can be injected. This is intended to kill bacteria that may build up in the drinking water supply.
074:58:40 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.
074:58:50 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Over.
074:58:52 Collins: Roger. We have two and a half minutes to LOS, and all systems are looking good. Everything is looking just fine down here, Frank.
074:59:02 Borman: Thank you.
074:59:06 Collins: We'll have some more information on the TV on the next rev. We're not planning any big change in the time, just to extend them a little bit, I think, closer to the terminator.
074:59:21 Borman: Just give us the time, will you, because we just want to know when it is. I'd like to get the terminator if we could, and we've got a little message, and that's it.
074:59:29 Collins: Roger. We'll do that the next time you come around.
074:59:32 Borman: Thank you. Okay. And have the EECOM guys keep a sharp watch on our systems. Old Anders is so busy fooling around with these pictures that - not much else is getting done.
074:59:47 Collins: Roger. The EECOM is doing that.
Very long comm break.
Bill Anders has two roles in this mission. He has been charged with keeping a close eye on the spacecraft's systems, essentially acting as an onboard EECOM. In lunar orbit, he takes care of the mission's photographic task. Frank, ever careful of ensuring a safe return to Earth, points out that what with Bill's two roles being somewhat incompatible, EECOM on Earth ought to keep an especially sharp eye on the systems.
075:13:28 Borman (onboard): Man, that's a charm.
075:13:35 Anders (onboard): Magazine E, showing 95 exposures, will be used for far-side terminator south photography for rev 4 and target 10 and 20 series which we believe were shot by the high-speed film on rev 1. We're using magazine I and magazine D to do the vertical stereo. Both of those show zero.
The Flight Plan indicates that Bill ought to be starting a 45-minute period of vertical stereo photography at 075:15 using a camera mounted in a bracket aimed through one of the rendezvous windows. The Photo Index shows that a total of 136 frames are taken with black and white magazine D on Rev 4. An intervalometer attachment for the Hasselblad takes the photographs automatically at preset intervals, freeing Bill to take occasional frames with a second Hasselblad of targets of opportunity as he finds them. These are also imaged on black and white film, in this case using magazine E, starting at around 075:20 with a series of shots of the far-side terminator.
Composite of seven lunar far-side images
AS08-13-2310 to 2316 - a montage of seven frames from magazine E looking south along the eastern rim of Galois. The main features visible are the satellite craters of Galois and the heavily shadowed Mechnikov U - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2317
AS08-13-2317 - Crater Doppler B on the northeast rim of Doppler. This crater seems to be the one Bill will refer to as having a ridge down the middle. Image centre is approximately at 11.57°S, 159.44°W - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
075:22:18 Anders (onboard): Okay. Frame number 104 was taken into von Braun...
075:22:39 Anders (onboard): ...which showed an interesting little ridge down the middle of it in one of the turtleback stills in one - in the little side crat - in the crater to the east.
AS08-13-2318
AS08-13-2318 - A crater apparently called von Braun by the crew but currently named Crookes - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
Two photos, AS08-13-2319 and 2320 are taken looking towards the southeastern horizon. The hills on the horizon are part of a ridge that runs south of crater Wisling and north of Plummer and may be part of the rim of the South Pole-Aitken Basin, the largest basin on the Moon. In 2319, the left peak is sited at approximately 22.5°S, 156.1°W. The crater slightly right of centre is Mohorovicic D and the larger crater to the lower right is Mohorovicic A. In the foreground is a line of small secondary craters which are part of the ejecta system coming from Crookes.
AS08-13-2319
AS08-13-2319 - Part of a ridge that runs south of crater Wisling and north of Plummer. The left peak is sited at approximately 22.5°S, 156.1°W - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2320 shows the same ridge of hills but from a viewpoint substantially further east. The right-hand end of the line of hills seen in 2319 now dominate the centre of the horizon. The western rim of crater McKellar is to the lower right with that crater's central peaks visible on the edge of the photo.
AS08-13-2320
AS08-13-2320 - Eastern end of a ridge southeast of crater Mohorovicic - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2321
AS08-13-2321 - View along the northeastern rim of the crater Aitken. The rim of Aitken A is just visible at the bottom of the frame - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
075:23:06 Anders (onboard): The next exposure was taken at 75:23:06.
075:23:32 Anders (onboard): Target 19.
075:23:39 Anders (onboard): Exposure 106.
Three frames are taken of target 19 that show the north rim of Aitken including Aitken Z.The specific subject of this target seem to be a series of bulbous hills within crater rims on Aitken's mare floor. Bill's sequence misses them but they are seen to the right of Aitken's interior in Lunar Orbiter II photo II-033-H3.
AS08-13-2322
AS08-13-2322 - Aitken Z - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2323
AS08-13-2323 - Northwestern rim of Aitken - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-13-2324
AS08-13-2324 - Western rim of Aitken - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
075:23:51 Anders (onboard): And was taken at 1/60th of a second at 5.6 with the terminator. We'll do it at 250th - that's good enough.
075:24:13 Anders (onboard): Spotmeter readings vertically are recorded on the map for lumens...
075:24:27 Anders (onboard): And they're all reading between 160 and 320.
075:24:36 Anders (onboard): Oblique: about 4 in the - between 460 and 320.
075:25:39 Anders (onboard): What time have you got, Frank?
075:25:42 Borman (onboard): [Garbled.]
075:25:45 Anders (onboard): Okay, going for target number 14, magazine E, frame 116.
075:26:22 Anders (onboard): 116 will be a target-of-opportunity photo showing some mountains on the horizon.
Judging from the photographic record, it is possible that Bill is referring to frame 106, which is AS08-13-2320, mentioned above.
Bill is about to change the aperture of the camera with which he is taking the vertical stereo images. Over the terminator, the Sun's light is not so strong so a large aperture is used to bring out the detail in the landforms betrayed by the low angle sunlight.
075:27:08 Anders (onboard): Okay, camera number - vertical stereo camera was put to 5.6 from 2.8 at 75:27.
As well as presenting each individual image from the vertical stereo sequence, we have compiled strips from sections of the entire pass using index photographs.
Composite of AS08-12-2044 to AS08-12-2075
Composite of AS08-12-2044 to AS08-12-2075, from 143°W to 180°. Korolev Crater - Source images by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
Immediately west of the terminator, this composite image covers a narrow strip that runs across the diameter of the walled plain, Korolev, and the terrain out to the west. Note the keyhole-shaped crater within Korolev. A small craterlet on the north side of Keyhole is a control point for Jim's landmark sighting exercises.
AS08-12-2044
AS08-12-2044 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2045
AS08-12-2045 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2046
AS08-12-2046 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2047
AS08-12-2047 - South is up. The large crater cut off at bottom right is Korolev F - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2048
AS08-12-2048 - South is up. The large crater cut off at bottom of frame is Korolev F - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2049
AS08-12-2049 - South is up. The largest crater in the triplet upper left of centre is Korolev G - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2050
AS08-12-2050 - South is up. Mountain feature is part of Korolev's inner ring - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2051
AS08-12-2051 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2052
AS08-12-2052 - South is up. The large crater is Korolev L and Keyhole crater is the distinctive feature at the upper right - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2053
AS08-12-2053 - South is up. Keyhole crater is the distinctive feature at the top of frame - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2054
AS08-12-2054 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2055
AS08-12-2055 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2056
AS08-12-2056 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2057
AS08-12-2057 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2058
AS08-12-2058 - South is up. The highly degraded western rim of Korolev runs vertically through the right side of the image - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2059
AS08-12-2059 - South is up. The highly degraded western rim of Korolev runs vertically through the image - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2060
AS08-12-2060 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2061
AS08-12-2061 - South is up. Large crater cut-off to the right is Crookes X - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2062
AS08-12-2062 - South is up. Large crater below centre is Crookes X - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2063
AS08-12-2063 - South is up. Large crater lower left of centre is Crookes X - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2064
AS08-12-2064 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2065
AS08-12-2065 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2066
AS08-12-2066 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2067
AS08-12-2067 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2068
AS08-12-2068 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2069
AS08-12-2069 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2070
AS08-12-2070 - South is up. Large crater top of frame is Amici T - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2071
AS08-12-2071 - South is up. Large crater top of frame is Amici T - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2072
AS08-12-2072 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2073
AS08-12-2073 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2074
AS08-12-2074 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2075
AS08-12-2075 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
075:28:02 Anders (onboard): Huh?
075:28:42 Anders (onboard): What time have you got, Frank?
075:28:46 Borman (onboard): 75:28.
075:29:33 Anders (onboard): Okay...
075:29:39 Anders (onboard): What's the time?
075:29:40 Borman (onboard): 12:23.
075:29:41 Anders (onboard): Starting at 12:23 on the event timer, we're going across what I think is - is Washington, though it's very hard to tell.
075:30:04 Anders (onboard): Target 19 was taken with mag E, about frame 107; series of three.
075:30:41 Anders (onboard): Make it a series of four.
075:31:04 Anders (onboard): Okay, we finished - target 19; four exposures on frame 111.
075:31:26 Anders (onboard): What's your time, Frank?
075:31:30 Borman (onboard): 14:05 [garble].
075:31:52 Anders (onboard): We should have put this over in your window. How about - Can you take this in your window?
075:32:01 Borman (onboard): Now, you want it while it's running?
075:32:03 Anders (onboard): Yes, go ahead. It's getting in the way of this other one.
075:32:07 Anders (onboard): I'll count out the exposures for you.
075:32:12 Anders (onboard): Yes.
075:32:20 Anders (onboard): Can you call out your time, Frank, please?
075:32:22 Borman (onboard): 15 minutes.
075:32:23 Anders (onboard): 14?
075:32:24 Borman (onboard): 15.
075:32:37 Anders (onboard): Okay, target number 23; 15 minutes; frame 112.
By our count, Bill is talking about AS08-13-2325.
AS08-13-2325
AS08-13-2325 - Zwicky N, a polygonal crater that sits in the middle of the highly degraded Zwicky - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
Composite of AS08-12-2076 to AS08-12-2105
Composite of AS08-12-2076 to AS08-12-2105, between the lines of longitude 178°W and 150°E - Source images by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
This composite image is constructed from frames AS08-12-2076 to 2105. The image runs between the lines of longitude 178°W and 150°E and cuts through the craters Keeler and Heaviside. Note how the shadows become virtually nonexistent as the spacecraft moves from right to left.
AS08-12-2076
AS08-12-2076 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2077
AS08-12-2077 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2078
AS08-12-2078 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2079
AS08-12-2079 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2080
AS08-12-2080 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2081
AS08-12-2081 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2082
AS08-12-2082 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2083
AS08-12-2083 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2084
AS08-12-2084 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2085
AS08-12-2085 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2086
AS08-12-2086 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2087
AS08-12-2087 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2088
AS08-12-2088 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2089
AS08-12-2089 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2090
AS08-12-2090 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2091
AS08-12-2091 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2092
AS08-12-2092 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2093
AS08-12-2093 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2094
AS08-12-2094 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2095
AS08-12-2095 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2096
AS08-12-2096 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2097
AS08-12-2097 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2098
AS08-12-2098 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2099
AS08-12-2099 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2100
AS08-12-2100 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2101
AS08-12-2101 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2102
AS08-12-2102 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2103
AS08-12-2103 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2104
AS08-12-2104 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2105
AS08-12-2105 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
075:33:06 Anders (onboard): [Cough.]
075:33:37 Borman (onboard): I've got to use that [yawn] - I've got to roll right.
075:34:08 Anders (onboard): Time, Frank?
075:34:11 Borman (onboard): 16:55.
075:34:16 Anders (onboard): Turn it to f/8 if you haven't got it there already.
075:34:20 Borman (onboard): That's where it was when you handed it to me.
075:34:21 Anders (onboard): Good.
075:35:10 Borman (onboard): 17:15.
075:35:11 Anders (onboard): Okay.
075:35:45 Anders (onboard): Fresh impact crater: Mag E, frame 113, about 18 minutes.
We believe this is AS08-13-2326.
AS08-13-2326
AS08-13-2326 - Fresh crater, Geiger R, with the rim of Geiger itself visible on the left hand side - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
Composite of AS08-12-2106 to AS08-12-2123
Composite of AS08-12-2106 to AS08-12-2123. The image runs through the southern half of crater Chauvenet. Its centreline runs along the 12°S line of latitude between the lines of longitude 152°E on the right and 133°E on the left.
Continuing Bill's vertical stereo sequence, this image is a composite of frames AS08-12-2106 to 2123 with crater Chauvenet being the main feature. The high-angle lighting, however, renders the crater almost invisible with the smaller, fresher craters dominating the landscape. The image centreline runs along the 12°S line of latitude between the lines of longitude 152°E on the right and 133°E on the left.
AS08-12-2106
AS08-12-2106 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2107
AS08-12-2107 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2108
AS08-12-2108 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2109
AS08-12-2109 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2110
AS08-12-2110 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2111
AS08-12-2111 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2112
AS08-12-2112 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2113
AS08-12-2113 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2114
AS08-12-2114 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2115
AS08-12-2115 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2116
AS08-12-2116 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2117
AS08-12-2117 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2118
AS08-12-2118 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2119
AS08-12-2119 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2120
AS08-12-2120 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2121
AS08-12-2121 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2122
AS08-12-2122 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2123
AS08-12-2123 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
This is Apollo Control, Houston; 75 hours, 37 minutes into the flight. Before we lost signal with the spacecraft, some one-half hour ago, I suppose, 20 minutes ago, Frank Borman came up on the line and said he would like to dedicate a prayer to the people of St. Christopher's church, his church here in Seabrook and he added to of the world. ...
075:38:14 Anders (onboard): Will you give me a Verb 64, Frank?
Verb 64 provides the crew with S-band High Gain Antenna angles, necessary for pointing the antenna at Earth.
075:38:21 Anders (onboard): I've got a bunch of scarps here - they're to be shot - would you give me the end tape...
075:38:24 Borman (onboard): [Garbled.]
075:38:30 Anders (onboard): Okay.
075:38:34 Anders (onboard): Okay.
075:39:17 Anders (onboard): Okay, frame - hope I'm not losing count here.
075:39:27 Anders (onboard): Okay, definitely frame 114, target of opportunity, extremely fresh impact crater.
We count this as frame 113 in magazine E. However, it is now catalogued as AS08-13-2327.
AS08-13-2327
AS08-13-2327 - Ray pattern from a simple, near vertical impact - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
This image dramatically shows the ray pattern from a simple, near vertical impact. Close to the crater, the ejecta blanket is continuous. Two crater diameters out, the blanket becomes discontinuous.
075:39:46 Anders (onboard): Time: 75:39:30.
075:40:51 Borman (onboard): You want to rotate in 6 minutes, Bill?
075:40:56 Anders (onboard): Not now, I'm checking here.
075:41:00 Anders (onboard): Frame 115, another extremely fresh impact crater taken at 75:41. If the window was a little more clear, I - Looks like it might be up on the top of the hill.
AS08-13-2328
AS08-13-2328 - Fresh crater from a low-angle impact - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
Frame AS08-13-2328 shows the difference in the ray pattern when the impact comes from a meteorite strike at a low angle. In particular, there is an excluded zone around the crater about 120° wide in which there is little sign of ejecta. This indicates that the incoming projectile came in from the top left of the photograph. Within the excluded zone is Denning V, mainly distinguishable by its dark floor.
075:41:32 Anders (onboard): What time do you have, Frank? Is it 20?
075:41:36 Borman (onboard): 25 almost. 24:19 now.
075:41:37 Anders (onboard): Okay, let's go.
075:41:42 Anders (onboard): Did they give you a time to rotate?
075:41:47 Borman (onboard): What?
075:41:48 Anders (onboard): Did they give you a time to rotate?
075:41:51 Borman (onboard): [Garble] wants me to rotate 75:46.
075:41:54 Anders (onboard): Yes, we've got a - ways to go yet.
075:41:57 Borman (onboard): 3 minutes - No, it's 5 minutes.
075:42:31 Anders (onboard): Okay, let's go - f/11.
Bill is continuing the vertical stereo sequence.
Composite of AS08-12-2124 to AS08-12-2135
Composite of AS08-12-2124 to AS08-12-2135. The image runs between the lines of longitude 134°E on the right and 120°E on the left.
Composited image of frames AS08-12-2124 to 2135. There is essentially no visible relief and in our compositing work, we have tried to dodge around the zero-phase bright spots that each individual image exhibited. Craters Danjon and Shirakatsi, though large and important in this region, are difficult to spot.
AS08-12-2124
AS08-12-2124 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2125
AS08-12-2125 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2126
AS08-12-2126 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2127
AS08-12-2127 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2128
AS08-12-2128 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2129
AS08-12-2129 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2130
AS08-12-2130 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2131
AS08-12-2131 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2132
AS08-12-2132 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2133
AS08-12-2133 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2134
AS08-12-2134 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
AS08-12-2135
AS08-12-2135 - South is up - Image by NASA/Johnson Space Center.
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